As Incredible As It Gets: Our Military Killing An Extraterrestrial Biological Entity (EBE)

MUFON Symposium Proceedings

THE FATAL ENCOUNTER AT FT. DIX-McGUIRE:A CASE STUDY; Status Report IV

Written by Leonard H. Stringfieold

Copyright ® 1985 by Leonard H. Springfield

 

ABSTRACT
New testimonial evidence and a document are bared in Status Report IV, following the re-emergence in 1983 of the informant whose experience, as a witness, was first disclosed three years earlier and published as Case A3 in Status Report III, 1982. The source, a sergeant in the Air Force Security Police at McGuire AFB, adds substantive information relative to the reported fatal encounter on January 18, 1978, between an alleged alien entity and a Ft. Dix MP and relates his firsthand observation, while on duty, when the slain entity was found on an abandoned runway at McGuire AFB. The source also reveals his sensitive involvement with authorities in various agencies following his discharge from service because of his disclosures to this writer. Also reported are the communications with the source since 1980 and an arranged meeting between the source and a colleague to lend back-up credibility to the case. Investigation continues.

PROLOGUE: THE BURDEN OF PROOF
Proof: The burden of this one word, and perhaps its ambiguity, has haunted and frustrated UFO research since businessman-pilot, Ken Arnold sighted nine saucer-like things over Mt. Rainier in 1947. Proof! Its implications burden all of us who try to convince the skeptic that unidentified objects, flying under apparent intelligent control, have intruded into Earth’s air space and sometimes allegedly land and, on rare occasions, crash.

All factors considered, I believe we, in the domain of public research, do not have that exalted proof to exhibit for any of the foregoing anomalous UFO events. As Dr. J. Allen Hynek of CUFOS, would say, we do have “reports” describing such events and, as we all will agree, many are made by credible people. Yes, our research treasury has thousands of reports of UFO encounters of all kinds providing stacks of circumstantial but highly suggestive evidence.

Alas, these are not proof. Nor do affidavits, “leaked” government documents, and photographs constitute proof. Regrettably, experience has taught us that any of these so-called proofs may well be fakes. Even a released document through the Freedom of Information Act is not proof, for the subject it treats too often contains precious little of value, due to censored deletions, vague phraseology, or references rendered meaningless without additional support data which are never made available.

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So, what is that proof that remains so elusive from public view? According to scientific discipline, proof, in the case of UFO, can be reduced simply to the possession of a captive craft or artifact or a cadaver, if you will, that can be seen, touched, and smelled, and to please Phil Klass, the world’s foremost debunker, we might include, tasted. I must, therefore, face the inevitable questions in my special research: Has such a nondescript craft been retrieved and studied and, to stretch a point, duplicated at some secret base? And, has a crew member of exotic anatomy been secretly examined and maintained in chemical preservation at some medical facility?

In spite of all the known evidence, including the testimony I have published in my series of monographs, I can offer no proof, by my definition, of the recovery of an alien craft or its occupants. So be it for me in the public sector.

Then, there is the “official sector whose military spokespeople from the outset have denied the existence of the UFO. Why? By now it should be obvious to every researcher that behind these denials, something “above top secret,” as Senator Barry Goldwater has said, is being hidden – perhaps, something big enough to shake up our societal patterns.

Whatever we may think of its implications for mankind, we do know that much information has been bared since World War II by credible military sources about UFO intercept missions, aircraft losses, visual sightings confirmed by radar and, yes, UFO landings on military installations and a crash, among several, one dating back to 1947. On the other hand, if all UFOs have simple explanations as the Air Force contends (and, as a spokesman once commented, “we are hiding nothing” at Wright-Patterson AFB), then why enforce such high degree of secrecy to hide nothing?

Logically, we may ask, what is it that must be hidden at all costs? Is it alien hardware? Alien cadavers? If so, why not tell the world? Why the long, agonizing secrecy? Here, again, we can only guess, but a likely one is that to face the media of the world they had better have answers for the UFOs origin and intent. Without answers, after so many years, the credibility gap of our Government and its scientific advisers would greatly suffer; and, without answers, the experts in the military, the CIA, the NSA, NRO, and NASA, who help form policy, will continue their secret probes in silence. It seems fair to say, we all have our proof problems

I would like to be assured that governments worldwide, including Russia, and especially our own National Reconnaissance Office are working on these problems. In good faith, I address these problems with new evidence for Case A3, published in Status Report III, UFO Crash/Retrievals: Amassing The Evidence (1982).

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THE EVIDENCE AND ITS BURDEN OF PROOF

September 23, 1980, was to become more than just a typically busy day for me in UFO matters. According to my UFOLOG, I note that I had communications by phone and mail with Joe Brill, Michael Dougan, Bob Gribble, Diane Saghe, and a journalist in Japan. And, there was an envelope with an APO San Francisco return address.

Of interest, of course, was Gribble’s call concerning a new source, a trucker who reported that he had transported something secret for the military from Aztec, N. Mex., in the late 1940’s, and a response to a letter I had sent to Saghe seeking information from a source she knew who had seen a captured saucer at a Texas air base. But, standing out above all else was the letter, APO San Francisco, dated September 16, 1980. It was typed in proper military format on stationery with official letterhead. (See Figure 1) Note that I have deleted the Security Police Squadron number. The name of the sender has been changed to “Jeffrey Morse” in this report.)

 Figure 1 – Copy of letter to Stringfield From Morse
Needless to say, I was stunned by the sergeant’s bold disclosure of a military incident of fatal consequences at McGuire AFB, N.J. My first reaction was that it was a hoax, perhaps designed, if it were published, to embarrass or discredit my probes into UFO crash/retrievals. Still fresh in mind was another episode in 1980 involving questionable photographs received from a source under clandestine arrangements requiring my travel to another State. In this case, although my initial role was to have the photographs studied and authenticated, I made the mistake of announcing their acquisition at the 1980 MUFON symposium in Houston. Thanks to a swift and well-orchestrated smear campaign, researchers, by and large, became confused and questioned both the photographs and my credibility. A hoax? A stratagem to set me up? Probably, but a lesson was learned. (Note 1)

During this fragile period, being suspicious of any stranger with information to offer, I read Morse’s letter over and over, and in between the lines, looking for anything detectably wrong. But, I could find nothing wrong. The letterhead was real, the military format was correct, the writer told his story as fact without emotional embellishment. Maybe, I reasoned, it was the sobriety of the official letterhead that made the story itself seem out of place with the real world. Like so many other stories of UFO close encounters it sounded like borderline fantasy, and some also involved the military, such as the British Rendlesham Forest Case. (Note 2)

Time will tell, I assured myself. Soon, Sgt. Morse would return home and if he had something of substance to back his claims it would be the big breakthrough. I was determined to see this one case through disregarding time, energy, and cost. Proving it, however, would be a monumental burden.

To better understand the incident and its ramifications, some of which later followed my source into civilian life, I believe it is essential to report verbatim most of my early exchanges of communications

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with him. This covers a span of time from Morse’s initial letter in 1980 into a period of apparent mail interference, then through his long interval of silence into his re-emergence in 1983.

As advised in Morse’s overseas letter, my reply of September 27, 1980, was mailed to his home address. In the main, it was a message to establish a rapport of trust between us, one in which he could feel comfortable in sharing the burden of his experience, and to allay any anxieties he may have had about my research background. My questions were few and simple. One, for instance, asked for more descriptive detail of the recovered body; another asked how the body was removed from the scene and by whom and still another, if he could reveal any names of the personnel assigned to the area. I ended my letter with this thought: “Hope to hear from you soon and will follow your mailing instructions. Your letter will remain confidential at this time and, of course, your name not be used in anyway.”

Sgt. Morse, who was to be discharged and back home in November 1980, did not acknowledge my letter. Considering the time lapse as critical, I sent another letter November 18, 1980, quoted in part,”… Hope by now you’re out of the service as you indicated in your letter from APO address….On September 27, I sent you a letter concerning my research endeavors which I trust you received at your home address. The incident you describe is, indeed, of interest to me and I hope you may find time soon to reach me by letter or phone, or, perhaps, to meet me at your convenience. You are certainly welcome to visit my home…I tried reaching you by phone last week, but your number is unlisted…”

In a letter dated November 27, 1980, from his home address, Morse answered as follows: “Sorry to have had such a delay in my response to you. I’m sorry to say I did not receive your letter of 27 September 1980. I haven’t received any mail since August 1980. 1 don’t know why. I am now out of the service and am home. I am prepared to answer your questions. I believe, however, I told you everything I know, but I’m not sure it was much to go on. But, I hope it leads you to someone who knows more about it. I’m sorry I can’t recall too many names. The desk sergeant that night was Sgt. C (last name only) and he would know much more as fact. That’s all I know of his name, however, I do remember that he was rather dedicated and may still be in the USAF. Well, I would like your next response ASAP and will try to give you my phone number by then.

On December 4, 1980, I sent Morse the following memorandum: “Your letter of November 27 arrived yesterday. I was surprised to learn that my letter of September 27 did not reach you. Fortunately, I kept a xeroxed copy which I have duplicated and enclosed for your consideration. Hope you can send me your phone number. Enclosed is a gratis copy of my recently published Status Report II, which shows the scope of my research.”

Again, Morse, for unknown reasons did not answer. Considering his expressed interest in my research and even allowing for other personal diversions, I thought that 2-1/2 months were enough time for him to re-

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spond. On February 16, 1981, I wrote again, expressing my concern and asked for a prompt reply as evidence of his sincerity. No answer.

Had it not been for Morse’s brief letter of November 27 in which he asked for me to respond “ASAP” I would have dismissed his disclosure of the incident as questionable. Something was amiss. Or was the mail sent to his home being lost through negligence, a long shot, or lifted at his post office by directive to the Postmaster from one of the intelligence agencies? Whatever the method used to silence Jeffrey Morse, I reasoned, it was effective. All communications ceased and, like so many other informants in 1980, Morse became a phantom.

By March 1981, while preparing the text for Status Report III, I had decided it was time to take inventory; time for appraisal of the material on hand and of myself still in the midst of a heated controversy among researchers over the pros and cons of UFO crashes and retrievals. I needed outside thinking, and assessment of cases, a new perspective. To this end, I invited to my home two trustworthy friends who supported and contributed to my endeavors: Dr. Peter Rank, Chief of Radiology at the Methodist Hospital in Madison, Wis, and, Richard Hall, former Assistant Director of NICAP and then Editor of the MUFON UFO Journal. (Note 3) During our long weekend chats, evaluating every case I planned to publish, we agreed that the Ft. Dix McGuire encounter was among the foremost as to potential value, providing we could establish the genuineness of Morse. On this premise, I gave Hall his name and address, hopeful that new blood might stimulate a response.

On April 10, 1982, Hall sent Morse a certified letter offering, on my behalf, to meet him anywhere, anytime, to discuss the incident and provide professional services and funds if needed. Curiously, the certified letter was received and signed for by Morse, April 12, but the silence continued. It continued for 17 months! Then, on September 27, 1983, Hall received an urgent letter from Morse, quoted as follows:

“I am writing you in regards to your letter, 10 April 1982. I’m sorry that it has taken so long to answer your letter. I had to be sure about you and your organization. My mail has not been monitored for some time now, however, I must not express my information in the letter form. I have been warned, threatened and I have personally been interrogated as recently as February, 1983, in reference to the subject I discussed with Len Stringfield. I also have further information,..which I know will interest you…I have the opportunity now to travel to D.C. area. So if you wish to contact me again, you should still have my address. Hope to hear from you soon. If after 2 weeks I have not heard from you, I will no longer acknowledge my participation with your group, nor will I answer any mail.”

When Hall phoned the news to me I advised that he follow up quickly by letter and arrange for a meeting. Unfortunately, because of personal circumstances, Hall’s reply, October 10, 1983, was sent a

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couple of days later than the deadline set by Morse. Again, silence. On November 30, 1983, I wrote Morse the following letter, quoted in part:

“… I held off writing until today, hoping that a little breathing time would give you the motivation to write. It is difficult to believe that the mail I sent you in 1980 and 1981 failed to reach you, if you had received my letters that you were unable to reach me in some manner. Obviously, there was interference both ways….I felt hopeful that Hall’s letter could open a new door of communications or, better still, a personal meeting with him. Now that several weeks have passed, I feel, again, concerned about your safety…Assuming you are still a free person, I suggest you simply call me, reversing the charges…Jeff, please respond in some way, if only to acknowledge you received this letter.”

Morse surfaced by phone on December 6, 1983, and I heard his voice for the first time. He called me at dinnertime, identifying himself by first name only, He said he felt safe now as enough time had passed since an official visitor warned him about his oath of secrecy. Talking cautiously for about 15 minutes, we covered the basics of many issues. Among his highpoints, however, were the disclosures that two days after the incident he and others on duty at the scene were summoned to Wright-Patterson AFB for interrogation, and that each was transferred promptly to a separate base overseas. His assignment was to a new Security Police Squadron in Okinawa. “Others,” he said, “went to the Philippines, Germany, and Korea.” Finally, he promised to answer any questions I had by letter and he gave me his phone number.

Morse’s phone call opened the gates. I followed up the next day with a four-page letter in which I reiterated questions asked in 1980. Also, excerpted from my letter: “Your testimony is important. Of course, I’ll need back-up witnesses such as Dick Hall so that credibility is established.. .Enclosed is a copy of Status Report III. Your report, Case A3 is on page 9 with my comments about our correspondence problems. At one point I wondered if you really existed or if your letter was a hoax. So, you can imagine my relief when I heard your voice.”

Morse replied promptly, his letter post-marked December 14, 1983, included a map he sketched of the scene of action and a rough drawing of the body. (Answers, to some of my key questions appear later in the text of this paper wherever the subject is appropriate.) Additional information came by phone, December 13, 1983. In this exchange, I got the names and ranks of the officers who were his interrogators at Wright-Patterson. These, he said, were obtained from a source still in the Air Force he preferred not to identify.

With the Ft. Dix-McGuire case going from Square One to Square Two, my dialogue with Morse was now on a constant but cautious track, always mindful of surveillance.

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The next event came as a surprise by certified mail postmarked December 23, 1983. On the flap of the envelope it said, “Merry Christmas. I hope you like it.” Inside, was a xeroxed copy of the Incident/Complaint Report (Form 1569)that Morse had hinted, by phone, he might be able to procure as important back-up. The Report was brief, but essentially contained the same story told by Morse. Prepared by Desk Sgt. WC and signed by 1st Lt. WS, it was channeled to Col. Landon, Commanding Officer of McGuire AFB; Brig. Gen. Brown, HQ., 21st Air Force (at McGuire AFB); and the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI). It contained the names of the security policemen involved, including Morse, and the name of the MP as signed to Ft. Dix whom Morse later identified as the person having shot the alien intruder. (See Figure 2, Incident/Complaint Report.) However, as agreed in our ensuing talks, I have deleted the names of the persons in the document. Also to protect the persons named, as he later confirmed when questioned, Morse had opaqued out the social security numbers opposite each name in the report. “These numbers are private,” he said.

 Figure 2 – Incident/Complaint Report
The document is avowedly not proof. For it to be established as bona fide would, in turn, require additional irretrievable reports, memoranda, tapes, ad infinitum. In this regard, however, Morse said on several occasions that he had attempted to obtain a later Form 1569 report mentioned by the desk sergeant, but was unsuccessful. Nevertheless, the Incident/Complaint Report, as it stands, is a strong link of evidence not easily dismissed, even if denied officially or by any of its named personnel who might be coerced to so do. (Note 4)

The genesis for Case A-3 as it is designated in Status Report III is a taped rebroadcast over the Armed Forces Far Eastern Radio Network of an interview conducted by Charlie Tuna of KATZ, Los Angeles, July 28, 1980. 1 remember the interview well, concerning my UFO crash/retrieval probes at which time I was promoting Status Report II, published by MUFON. At the close of the interview, I gave my home address for listeners who might contribute information. By chance, Morse, with his new Security Police Squadron in Okinawa, heard it as did others in the U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East. As confirmation of this, I have a letter of inquiry from a serviceman, D. N. Cook stationed in Korea who mentioned the broadcast. (Letter on file.)

To establish how it all began, I believe, is important for it diminishes the chance that Morse may have acted in collusion with a Stateside hoaxer. Also, to verify that he was stationed in Okinawa, I asked questions about the island’s terrain and its little-known off shore island, le Shima. His answers were right on target as I knew these islands well, having been there myself with the 5th Air Force in World War II.

For the incident itself at McGuire AFB we have only Morse’s word and his word only that it happened the way he described it based on his recall of his own experience and observations. Other than the Incident/Complaint Report which produced names, no other person has responded to Morse’s request for back-up testimony. One letter he ad-

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dressed to another member of his unit on patrol went unanswered; still another refused to surface to his request fearing for his career in the services. “No way,” was the response.

Additional details about the affair came bit by bit based on specific questions by phone and letter during 1984, which are broken down for simplicity into categories as follow:

1. The Humanoid Factor. At varying times during his patrol duty, Morse was within 40 to 70 feet from the prostrate body on the abandoned runway #5. Never close enough to observe details such as facial features, or its hands and feet, he did recall that, under the glare of truck headlights, the skin of the unclad, hairless body was wet, shiny, and snake-like. As reported in his initial letter, the entity was about 4 feet in height with large head, slender torso, thin arms and legs, and overall, of grayish-brown coloration. Unquestionably not human, it was however of humanoid stature, fitting the anatomical description so often heard from military sources who have made claim to having seen entities at crash sites and as defined, coincidentally, by a medical source who allegedly performed an autopsy on a specimen in the early 1950’s. (Note 5) (Also, see Figure 3, drawing by Morse.)

Always pressing for more detail, I once proffered the notion that the McGuire corpse could have been that of a wild animal, a deer perhaps or an escaped ape from a military experimentation lab, or a zoo. To this Morse replied, “No zoo nearby. We did have a problem with deer on the runway, but no one ever made such a big fuss over a deer.”

The only other anomaly that Morse attributed to the presence of the body was the strong smell of ammonia in the cold night air, and, I note here that the same odor also prevailed at the alleged crash site in Case A-2 of Status Report III.

2. UFO Reports. Morse, who never sighted a UFO before or after the incident, was among many on duty who witnessed the bluish-green lights flying high and in tight formation over the adjoining Ft. Dix McGuire bases. And, in the Incident/Complaint Report is the confirmation of their flight by the radar operator, A/1C R, on duty at the airbase control tower. Also, he had learned from the state trooper and later from his desk sergeant, WC, that one of the UFOs had come in at low level over the Ft. Dix MP’s patrol car causing temporary failure of his radio transmission. (See Figure 4 and Figure 5.) Drawings of UFO flight formation and map of Ft. Dix-McGuire showing sites of shooting and location of body, based on sketches by Morse.)

Although he never was able to see or talk with the Ft. Dix MP, JS, Morse did seek confirmation after his military service from the New Jersey State Police for their part in the incident, but he got nowhere, claiming they would not cooperate. Also, attempts to locate the state trooper he met at Gate #5 were futile. In this runaround, I recall Case A-8 in Status Report III where the police personnel involved in the 1966 Hillsdale-Dexter, Michigan, encounter were immedi-

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ately transferred to new posts in the county, and that all records on their blotter regarding the incident were removed.

My search for UFO reports coincidental to the January 18, 1978, event, mainly in the eastern part of the U.S.A., indicates there was no national flap and no concentration of sightings in the New Jersey area at that time. A check into the reports collected and evaluated in the International UFO Reporter (CUFOS) for that time period show that 82 reports, according to editor Allan Hendry, were judged to be “identifiable or inappropriate,” however five were selected for review in the March 1978 issue. These occurred in Toledo, Ohio, 1/23/78; Williamston, N.C., 1/27/78; Key West, Fla., 1/27/78; Montvale, N.J., 1/31/78; and Peoria, Ill. 2/5/78.

The only case possibly akin to the Ft. Dix-McGuiire encounter is the January 31 report in Montvale, N.J., which involved humanoids. This story was reported in the February 1978 issue of the MUFON UFO Journal with drawings of the entities, bearing little resemblance to the biped described by Morse. It was also fully reported in the April 1978 issue of the International UFO Reporter. Only because the encounter happened in New Jersey and within a reasonable time frame is it of relative interest.

Another case occurring January 15, 1978, three days before the incident, involved a pilot, Roger K, and passengers flying in a Sundowner from Evansville, Ind., to Lunken Airport in Cincinnati, Ohio. I received the pilot’s call who got my telephone number from the Control Tower, explaining that he had a harrowing experience 20 miles north of Louisville, Ky., at 5,500 feet when he observed two white lights, one moving back and forth, the other stationary. Watching the one object make a circle, he said, it all of a sudden headed for the Sundowner on a collision course. To escape its path, he dove 1,000 feet and watched it pass overhead and out of sight. Calling the Control Tower at Standiford Airport in Louisville, he heard they had received calls from people in the area who saw a UFO.

In early January 1985, my hopes to get a back-up UFO report were heightened when a letter from Morse stated that he had traveled to Baldwinsville, N.Y., to see a friend retired from the Air Force, a former M/Sgt. HPS who had served in the 2lst Air Force Headquarters at McGuire in the late 1970’s. Morse said that he briefly mentioned the incident HPS and learned that he recalled a night in 1978 when he took an urgent call from a C-141 pilot reporting a UFO while flying near McGuire. Morse said that HPS was vaguely aware of his incident and suggested I check further, giving me his address. I called HPS the day I got Morse’s letter. HPS confirmed that he got the call from the pilot in 1978 which he said was “quickly squelched,” but he could not pinpoint the date. “Too long ago and I kept no records,” he said, adding “I don’t recall a base alert, but the call I got from the pilot could have happened the same night of the other incident.”

While on the phone I asked HPS about Jeff as a person. “He was always friendly,” he said. “I lived with my family on the base and he

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would often stop by in his patrol car and play with the kids. We got to know him well. HPS added that he had no reason to question his honesty or sincerity. In my opinion, had Morse been a shrewd hoaxer he could have inveigled someone else into adding spicy details to the incident instead of HPS, who, in all honesty, provided little of real substance to support his case. But my call was worth the cost; HPS vouched that Morse was at McGuire in 1978 and that he was a likable person.

The most significant event of UFO activity, pinpointing the exact date, January 18, 1978, is a report I received from a police officer, Ron Jones, while on duty in Erlanger, Ky. His UFO was a large lime-green, egg-shaped object flying erratically across Kentucky skies. Other reports of a green object were also reported that night in northern Kentucky and into Cincinnati, including one coincidentally, that flew low over the home of the Jones family, causing a moment of terror. The story made big news on the local radio stations and in the headline of the Kentucky edition of the Cincinnati Post. (See Figure 6 for the newspaper account.)

Of pertinence in this event is that the UFO was green as were those observed by Morse. Despite a variance in shade, perhaps, in my research green is among the least common of colors in the spectrum reported for UFOS. Most often reported is white, yellow, orange, and red. Considering that Erlanger, south of Cincinnati, is as the crow flies, a short hop for a UFO to New Jersey, the two events may be plausibly linked.

3. The Retrieval Operation. It was maximum security, said MorsE who, alone, in his patrol car, received word by radio that a state of alert was in effect at McGuire as a result of the shooting incident. He was ordered to Gate #5 to answer the request of a state police officer who had been “running code” with the MP during his encounter at Ft. Dix and wanted admission to the airbase. Morse was ordered to “comply,” but when the trooper wanted to get closer to the runway he was not allowed to do so, and he was angry. On orders by radio, Morse was told that all personnel – including he and other members of his security police unit – were restricted from entry into the roped-off zone. Taking command was a new and unfamiliar team of Blue Berets that suddenly descended onto the scene, just moments after the runway had been cordoned off. With speed and efficiency “they took over” he said, “and when asked who they were we were told nothing and ordered to stay outside the ropes.” Perplexed by this covert action, he noted that all of them were staff sergeants and up, wearing fatigues without patches or insignia. And for headgear, he said, “they wore blue berets just like mine.”

In one letter Morse vaguely speculated they were “undercover cops” and, by phone, he said he felt certain “they” were stationed somewhere at McGuire to account for their quick deployment to the runway. In support of this, when asked if helicopters were seen or heard overhead or landed on or near the scene, his reply was negative. This, it seems, would rule out any notion that they had been trans-

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ported from an outside base. It also strengthened his belief, and mine, that a UFO had not crashed or been disabled nearby requiring close tactical air support. But, what of a landed craft, perhaps one that touch-landed earlier at Ft. Dix? Could it have deployed one or more of its kind to perform a duty, forever unknown, at one or both of the adjoining military installations? The book, Clear Intent by Lawrence Fawcett & Barry Greenwood (Prentice-Hall, 1984) relates many reports of UFO surveillance over airbases in 1975-76 and I know of many more hidden under the lid of secrecy.

At McGuire, once the sensitive area had been roped off and ECP (Entry Control Point) established, a generator unit was brought in for better lighting. At least a dozen men, said Morse, armed with M-l6’s were assigned to guard at the ropes and no one was allowed to enter except the base commander, the security police squadron commander, 1st Lt. WS of the security police squadron, and a base photographer.

While on patrol, Morse watched the Blue Beret specialists spray the corpse from a portable tank and cover it with a white sheet. Before daybreak the body was carefully placed onto a platform and a wooden frame built around it. This was finally placed into a large square silver metal container, about 10 x 10 feet with undistinguishable blue markings

Before going off duty, Morse and others watched the silver box fork-lifted into a C-141 which arrived about 7 a.m. from Wright-Patterson AFB (identified by special markings) and, later, at a distance he said he watched the plane and its secret cargo soar aloft into limbo, presumed destination, Dayton, Ohio.

For Sgt. Morse and others of the Blue Beret regulars at McGuire, it was far from over when the C-141, with corpse, took off. Two days later he and three others he named were also on a C-141 on orders to report to Wright-Patterson, the base of many sancta. The setting at Wright-Patterson was like that of a court martial, a table and chairs in an unadorned room which Morse describes as follows: “While there we were all together except for actual interrogations. Mine had two men, one apparently a civilian with pipe and beard who never spoke. At one point there were three men. One played nice guy, one mean guy, and, of course, the silent civilian. All they wanted to know was the nature of the incident, what I knew and then told me about my duty to keep my mouth shut…I signed a form and it is supposed to bind me for life.”
Never once, as Morse recalls, did any of the interrogators offer information or an explanation of the incident. Nor did anyone ever refer to the retrieved dead body or suggest that it may have been of extraterrestrial origin. Said Morse, “they beat around the bush, all references to it were indirect.” The day after the interrogation, Morse returned to McGuire, was debriefed by his Commanding Officer, Lt. Col. FM, and released for normal duty. The incident, he said, was not discussed again by anyone as though it never happened.

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The names of the officers at Wright-Patterson, including a Brigadier General, which Morse had had confirmed by a source still in the military, have been known to me since our first telephone chat. Although I agreed not to publish these names, in respect to security, I did insist they be authenticated and by someone other than myself, to lend credence to the case. With permission, I gave the names to Richard Hall, who had access to such records at the Library of Congress.

For the most part, his time and effort were not in vain. Although the Air Force Register for 1978 was “off the shelf,” he said he was able to find in the 1979 edition a status entry for each officer except one, a Colonel B who Morse had said played the “bad guy. Hall speculated that Colonel B may have been with the CIA, but according to Morse, all the officers, including the questionable Colonel, were in civilian clothes, and each was identified with a nameplate showing his rank in parentheses. Whatever the Colonel’s role we are left to conclude that the silent, bearded man with a pipe, who, according to Morse, was without a nameplate, may have been with the CIA or another covert agency. To stem any suspicion, I had Morse check a picture of Dr. J. Allen Hynek, well-known for pipe and beard. His comment: “Some similarities, but my man was about 50 and his beard was flat, not a goatee. Don’t think it was Hynek.” (Note 6)

For the record, the officers at McGuire were also checked out and confirmed, but unfortunately, as Hall explained, the assignments for the time and place of the Wright-Patterson officers were not obtainable in the Air Force Register or in any other immediately available record. Also, disappointing, there was no direct way to check on the enlisted men named in the Incident/Complaint Report without having the identification of a social security or military serial number.

4. Surveillance? Morse believes that his problem of living under the burden of surveillance began with his first letter to me from overseas. If we can assume for a moment that Morse’s story is true, then we can also assume that such UFO-related military incidents are safeguarded by any means necessary to maintain optimum secrecy. Thus Morse being a risk had his mail monitored. Needless to say, at this point when his breach of security was discovered, his mail and, perhaps, mine in 1980 suffered interference which led to his having visitors with warnings.

An example of bugging Morse psychologically and/or electronically occurred January 12, 1984, when I called him and got only “yes” and “no” to my questions. In his letter written the same day to explain his evasiveness he said, “Sorry for waiting so long on reply to your letter…there was a Government car on the street the day I got it. I don’t think it’s related but I don’t want to take any chances…I don’t know if it [surveillance] is relaxed anymore or, if it ever was… I must also mention that we had much trouble with our phone in the past two weeks and several different repairmen have corrected the same problems each time. That is why I hesitated to speak to you today on the phone.”

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It is no wonder that Morse may have had some second thoughts about reaching me until 1983. But, his affairs were not to get better.

In early 1984, I had expressed my desire, again, to visit Morse, but this overture fell short when he announced in March that he planned a visit to the West Coast. While there, he said, he hoped to see someone who might provide the back-up information I needed. Seven months passed, again, in silence. Finally, on October 4, 1984, he answered my letter of September 4, saying briefly that he had a new problem; this time related to his application for a position in law enforcement with a Government service. Commented Morse, in part.”…the Government is giving me a hard time.. .First, they wouldn’t let me have the job. I took them to Federal Appeals Court and they were ordered to hire me. They’re appealing the decision. I guess we know why this is happening…”

Later, by phone in December, I was to learn that Morse had received a call from an attorney in the Justice Department (name on file), who stated during their discussion on Morse’s employment, “Your acquaintance with Mr. Stringfield didn’t help!”

Then, by letter, December 31, 1984, Morse wrote, “I was approached by a person, wearing a black suit, in my parking lot who mentioned things may go my way if I deny this incident. I just received notice by registered mail that the Department of Justice has decided to make me eligible for hire. I feel these two things are related.”

5. Analogy: The Ellsworth Case. In a James Bond movie we all can recognize James Bond, but in UFO research we cannot always identify the real Bond from a bogus Bond. For certain, however, intrigue is highly visible in Bond of fiction and in some areas of UFO research, especially in the sensitive area of crash/retrievals. While Morse’s disclosures may seem fictitious, there is one parallel case of violence that probably is just that, fictitious, and it deserves a hearing in this report. This one is known as the Ellsworth Case because the missile site where it allegedly occurred is under the command of Ellsworth AFB near Rapid City, S. Dakota.

The story begins with an unsigned note directed to the National Enquirer, January 29, 1978. It reads, in part, as follows: “The incident stated in the attached report actually occurred. The Air Force appointed a special team to investigate the incident. I was one of those individuals. I am still on active duty and so I cannot state my name at this time…the incident occurred on 16 November 1977…was classified top secret 2 December 1977. At that time I obtained a copy of the original report…”

At the Enquirer, Robert Pratt, a knowledgeable Ufologist, and a team of fellow reporters first thought it was a hoax. However, when they made a number of calls to Ellsworth and Rapid City to find that the men named in the report existed they decided to fly to the site for a firsthand investigation. The case quickly collapsed. By the time they finished their interviews with all concerned in the report, with

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the help of Ellsworth’s Information Officer, and checked on each person’s story, they were convinced that the incident was a hoax. Never published in the Inquirer, the story was scrapped until it was revived by some UFO enthusiasts circulating rumors that it was true and cleverly covered-up. To put it to rest, Pratt, during his tenure as editor of the MUFON UFO Journal, published his “Anatomy of a Hoax” in the January 1984 issue.

The Ellsworth case, although its Incident/Complaint Report predates the Ft. Dix-McGuire encounter, differs appreciably in that its source was so slipshod in handling of easily checkable facts about the personnel. Says Pratt in his expose, “we found more than 20 discrepancies or errors in the report – wrong names, numbers, occupations, physical layouts and so on…It would be easy to say the Air Force falsified numerous documents, muzzled everyone on the base, published a phony high school yearbook, but that is highly unlikely…we spent a total of 44 man-days investigating this at a cost of more than $15,000. We had no doubt that the incident in the so-called report never occurred.”

Morse, who has survived all of his ordeals since his story was published in Status Report III, remains openly agreeable to the investigation of his case. Cooperatively, he did not question my challenge to have the officers names at Wright-Patterson or the personnel at McGuire checked out, and welcomed the chance to meet and be interviewed on all issues by one of my more critical colleagues, Richard Hall.

For the record, Morse was made fully aware of the Ellsworth case with a xeroxed copy sent to him for appraisal. He replied that the terminology used was pretty accurate, noting, “The form you see is probably a back office copy. It could have been rewritten.” In a later comment he said, “Without firsthand information, the case doesn’t mean much.” In short, what Morse was saying, “Where’s the source?”

6. Jeffrey Morse: The Person. In the Ellsworth case, the informant, who never surfaced, was remiss with facts in his Incident/Complaint Report. In the Ft. Dix-McGuire case, however, its bedrock of strength is not wholly reliant on the report, which was obtained for him by another source in his squadron. It is Jeffrey Morse, himself. It is the Morse who once wrote to me, “The public should know the truth.”

Through many letters and mostly by phone I got to know Morse as amiable, bright and alert and inclined toward reticence, never resorting to glib, idle chatter. When questioned on critical or touchy issues, he was trigger-quick to respond in convincing detail; but, in the main, he always spoke guardedly, revealing little personal emotion over his dramatic experiences. Sometimes I felt that behind this stoic reserve, and his admission that he didn’t have answers to many of my questions, he may have known more than he was saying. Above all, however, Morse never once contradicted himself with the information he chose to offer.

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From experience, I knew all along that my one-to-one contact with my key source, who would remain anonymous to research, was not sufficient. I also knew, for good reasons, that my time to get a second witness, with an objective appraisal, was running out. Foremost in mind was the “deal” proposed to Morse by a stranger in a parking lot, which, if effected, could possibly stall or even prevent any further contact. Also, having selected Case A-3 as my topic for the MUFON symposium in St. Louis, I had no time to spare. My deadline for final copy was March 1st. Phone calls brought quick results. Morse and Hall met January 13, 1985, at a mall near Washington, D.C., Hall, with finesse in the role of playing “devil’s advocate,” agreed that the character of Morse was of greater importance than rehashing the details of the incident. In this manner, Hall watched and listened. Following are comments from his letter, January 13, 1985:

 

“I did not pursue any hard line of questioning, mainly wanting to gain his confidence and form some impression of his credibility. I broke the ice by showing him the typed list of name checks which we discussed for a while, and he spoke easily after that…Personally, A-3 was well-groomed, friendly, relaxed, calm, articulate. He spoke confidently and without hesitation in answer to questions, and did not come across at all as someone who has concocted a tall tale and might contradict himself or get caught in some sort of trap if he weren’t careful. He showed no mannerisms that would betray any obvious psychoses or ‘hang-up.’ Other than a healthy dose of disdain for authorities for which he apparently had good reason, he did not have any obvious axe to grind.”“He explained his personal situation and repeated to me what he told you in case he suddenly denied the story…He professes not to be interested in UFOs and that he put the experience be hind him without any lingering trauma…overall, I detected nothing   in his manner, or story, to cause skepticism. To the contrary, he seemed very credible to me. He also spoke easily about his family and relatives toward the end of our interview, and was not at all ‘full’of the story and wanting only to talk about it; no obsession. Pending further investigation, I would tend to give him very high marks. I kept a mental picture of other possible explanations, but they did not fit his image, style, or demeanor.”

SUMMARY COMMENTS
In bringing my report to a close, I recognize the need for more information about the shooting episode at Ft. Dix and the nature of the body retrieved from McGuire. But, for the moment, the testimony of the one and only available witness must carry the so-called burden of proof. Hall’s informative meeting and my many exchanges by letter and phone certainly establish a strong base for Morse’s integrity.

In closing, I must note that, in character with his downplaying of events, Morse never once stated to me that the entity he saw, de-

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spite its alien anatomy, was of extraterrestrial origin or that it might have come from one of the UFOs he saw overhead on that fatal night of January 18, 1978.

At this point, with so much at stake on the testimony of one witness, we must go beyond the anecdote and the support data and take a closer look at the witness himself. What kind of person is Jeffrey Morse? Born September 10, 1958, he was 20 years old at the time of the incident. After high school he attended various universities taking prep courses, finally majoring in computer science. A Catholic by faith, he attends church regularly and in keeping with his interest in law enforcement, he is a member of the Fraternal Order of Police. Among his hobbies and for recreation he is into video taping, foreign languages, plays softball, touch football, and is a coach in youth sporting activities.

Morse is not a UFO buff. He is not aware of most UFO events or nationally known researchers and authors. To this end, I submitted fifteen names to him for his comment, but he could not identify any one of them. When I mentioned this detail to one of my more perceptive contemporaries, he remarked, “You should expect this kind of pretended ignorance from a plant setting you up with false information.”

A point, indeed, but it’s a weak point. I know of no good reason for an undercover agent to continue to play games long after his story was published in my 1982 Status Report. Certainly if it were contrived to expose my gullibility and thus discredit my work, why have the conspirators not unleashed their stooges to flaunt their spoils of triumph by now? Moreover, Morse knows that I have no intention to present his case, in this paper, as proof.

Status Report IV is purely an analysis of events encompassing one case worthy of serious review. I believe the data I present here offer substantially more than other encounters or retrievals published in my series of status reports. Significantly inadequate by comparison is the Nellis AFB affair, 1968, in Case A-5 Status Report II, and the Lumberton (or Wilmington), Ohio, skirmish in Case B-13 of the same paper and updated on Page 44 of Status Report III. The only commonality, it seems, is that they all carry a burden of proof as do all cases in UFO lore!

Since 1982, new sources have emerged and vanished on the horizon of my research, none worthy of a monograph. I think Jeffrey Morse’s case is special and, if we like to ramble in our thoughts seeking answers, or feel inclined to speculate into the shadowy realms of intrigue, perhaps there is another side to secrecy, the side that occasionally leaks the truth, if you will, for the simple reason that it is long overdue.

 

NOTES
1. See Status Report III (1982), pages 40-41; also articles published in MUFON UFO Journal, Dec. 1980 and Sept. 1981.

2. Also known as the Bentwaters Case, site of U.S. air base in the Rendlesham Forest. See Crash by British authors Brenda Butler, Dot Street, and Jenny Randles (Neville Spearman, Brigland, 1984). I must, however, note that these authors are in error on page 213 where they state, “Stringfield was too scared to travel to the conference [Univ. of Nebraska, Nov. 1983, where my paper “UFO C/R Update” was read by Ray Boeche] because he believed he was in danger following his research.” Not so. There was no basis whatsoever for being scared. My reason, simply, was that I had no important information in my brief report warranting my presence or the expense of travel.

3. See statement in Epilogue, page 49, of Status Report III, signed by Dr. Peter Rank and Richard Hall.

4. See Incident/Complaint Report, Item 11, where the box for “Unfounded” is checked. Inasmuch as “Unfounded” suggests that the incident was baseless, I asked Morse to explain this classification. He said that it referred only to the limited information available to his security police squadron, which was not in a position to evaluate the incident. Also note that the check in Item 13 indicates that the case was referred to “Other agency” (AFOSI) for final disposition, including “One body of unknown origin…” released to other authorities. The security police squadron had no basis for any other “Evaluation.”

5. See Case A7 in Status Report II (1980) which includes letter from medical source describing, in layman’s terms, his observation of alien specimen. See also analogous description by a former CIA person in Case A6, same report.

6. On my suggestion, Morse obtained a copy of the Feb. 1985 issue of OMNI magazine, which featured an article about Dr. Hynek with current pictures. Oddly, a letter sent to Morse on Jan. 12, 1985, with various enclosures, including pictures of Dr. Hynek (vintage 1978) for his comments, was never received.

 

 

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Figure 7 (Two letters from the Air Force)
1 Feb 1965 Letter to Stringfield From AF/FOIA Mngr.
1 Feb 1985 Letter to Stringfield From Administrative Office, Fort Dix

 

UFOs and the CIA: A Close Encounter Of The Wrong Kind

4629151.5639611

CIA’s Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90

A Die-Hard Issue

Gerald K. Haines

 

WARNING:  Before reading this lengthy commentary, be aware of the fact that this is but one of many, well-developed methods the CIA and the rest of the intelligence community uses via social media to disseminate its own disinformation, where they continuously lie in an effort to dissuade the public from believing that UFOs are real.  What’s so even more interesting, is how the intelligence community in general has trouble keeping their own lies straight, where they appear to continuously contradict themselves.  This is now a well-oiled machine, that is regularly reinforced by the media.  I find it most interesting how the CIA places propaganda on their own servers.  Do they really think that anyone with even half a brain will be stupid enough to believe that the CIA’s own “alleged cover-up” is an accurate one?  Give me a break!

An extraordinary 95 percent of all Americans have at least heard or read something about Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs), and 57 percent believe they are real. (1) Former US Presidents Carter and Reagan claim to have seen a UFO. UFOlogists–a neologism for UFO buffs–and private UFO organizations are found throughout the United States. Many are convinced that the US Government, and particularly CIA, are engaged in a massive conspiracy and coverup of the issue. The idea that CIA has secretly concealed its research into UFOs has been a major theme of UFO buffs since the modern UFO phenomena emerged in the late 1940s. (2)

In late 1993, after being pressured by UFOlogists for the release of additional CIA information on UFOs, (3) DCI R. James Woolsey ordered another review of all Agency files on UFOs. Using CIA records compiled from that review, this study traces CIA interest and involvement in the UFO controversy from the late 1940s to 1990. It chronologically examines the Agency’s efforts to solve the mystery of UFOs, its programs that had an impact on UFO sightings, and its attempts to conceal CIA involvement in the entire UFO issue. What emerges from this examination is that, while Agency concern over UFOs was substantial until the early 1950s, CIA has since paid only limited and peripheral attention to the phenomena.

Background

The emergence in 1947 of the Cold War confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union also saw the first wave of UFO sightings. The first report of a “flying saucer” over the United States came on 24 June 1947, when Kenneth Arnold, a private pilot and reputable businessman, while looking for a downed plane sighted nine disk-shaped objects near Mt. Rainier, Washington, traveling at an estimated speed of over 1,000 mph. Arnold’s report was followed by a flood of additional sightings, including reports from military and civilian pilots and air traffic controllers all over the United States. (4) In 1948, Air Force Gen. Nathan Twining, head of the Air Technical Service Command, established Project SIGN (initially named Project SAUCER) to collect, collate, evaluate, and distribute within the government all information relating to such sightings, on the premise that UFOs might be real and of national security concern. (5)

The Technical Intelligence Division of the Air Material Command (AMC) at Wright Field (later Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) in Dayton, Ohio, assumed control of Project SIGN and began its work on 23 January 1948. Although at first fearful that the objects might be Soviet secret weapons, the Air Force soon concluded that UFOs were real but easily explained and not extraordinary. The Air Force report found that almost all sightings stemmed from one or more of three causes: mass hysteria and hallucination, hoax, or misinterpretation of known objects. Nevertheless, the report recommended continued military intelligence control over the investigation of all sightings and did not rule out the possibility of extraterrestrial phenomena. (6)

Amid mounting UFO sightings, the Air Force continued to collect and evaluate UFO data in the late 1940s under a new project, GRUDGE, which tried to alleviate public anxiety over UFOs via a public relations campaign designed to persuade the public that UFOs constituted nothing unusual or extraordinary. UFO sightings were explained as balloons, conventional aircraft, planets, meteors, optical illusions, solar reflections, or even “large hailstones.” GRUDGE officials found no evidence in UFO sightings of advanced foreign weapons design or development, and they concluded that UFOs did not threaten US security. They recommended that the project be reduced in scope because the very existence of Air Force official interest encouraged people to believe in UFOs and contributed to a “war hysteria” atmosphere. On 27 December 1949, the Air Force announced the project’s termination. (7)

With increased Cold War tensions, the Korean war, and continued UFO sightings, USAF Director of Intelligence Maj. Gen. Charles P. Cabell ordered a new UFO project in 1952. Project BLUE BOOK became the major Air Force effort to study the UFO phenomenon throughout the 1950s and 1960s. (8) The task of identifying and explaining UFOs continued to fall on the Air Material Command at Wright-Patterson. With a small staff, the Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC) tried to persuade the public that UFOs were not extraordinary. (9) Projects SIGN, GRUDGE, and BLUE BOOK set the tone for the official US Government position regarding UFOs for the next 30 years.

Early CIA Concerns, 1947-52

CIA closely monitored the Air Force effort, aware of the mounting number of sightings and increasingly concerned that UFOs might pose a potential security threat. (10) Given the distribution of the sightings, CIA officials in 1952 questioned whether they might reflect “midsummer madness.” (11) Agency officials accepted the Air Force’s conclusions about UFO reports, although they concluded that “since there is a remote possibility that they may be interplanetary aircraft, it is necessary to investigate each sighting.” (12)

A massive buildup of sightings over the United States in 1952, especially in July, alarmed the Truman administration. On 19 and 20 July, radar scopes at Washington National Airport and Andrews Air Force Base tracked mysterious blips. On 27 July, the blips reappeared. The Air Force scrambled interceptor aircraft to investigate, but they found nothing. The incidents, however, caused headlines across the country. The White House wanted to know what was happening, and the Air Force quickly offered the explanation that the radar blips might be the result of “temperature inversions.” Later, a Civil Aeronautics Administration investigation confirmed that such radar blips were quite common and were caused by temperature inversions. (13)

Although it had monitored UFO reports for at least three years, CIA reacted to the new rash of sightings by forming a special study group within the Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI) and the Office of Current Intelligence (OCI) to review the situation. (14) Edward Tauss, acting chief of OSI’s Weapons and Equipment Division, reported for the group that most UFO sightings could be easily explained. Nevertheless, he recommended that the Agency continue monitoring the problem, in coordination with ATIC. He also urged that CIA conceal its interest from the media and the public, “in view of their probable alarmist tendencies” to accept such interest as confirming the existence of UFOs. (15)

Upon receiving the report, Deputy Director for Intelligence (DDI) Robert Amory, Jr. assigned responsibility for the UFO investigations to OSI’s Physics and Electronics Division, with A. Ray Gordon as the officer in charge. (16) Each branch in the division was to contribute to the investigation, and Gordon was to coordinate closely with ATIC. Amory, who asked the group to focus on the national security implications of UFOs, was relaying DCI Walter Bedell Smith’s concerns. (17) Smith wanted to know whether or not the Air Force investigation of flying saucers was sufficiently objective and how much more money and manpower would be necessary to determine the cause of the small percentage of unexplained flying saucers. Smith believed “there was only one chance in 10,000 that the phenomenon posed a threat to the security of the country, but even that chance could not be taken.” According to Smith, it was CIA’s responsibility by statute to coordinate the intelligence effort required to solve the problem. Smith also wanted to know what use could be made of the UFO phenomenon in connection with US psychological warfare efforts. (18)

Led by Gordon, the CIA Study Group met with Air Force officials at Wright-Patterson and reviewed their data and findings. The Air Force claimed that 90 percent of the reported sightings were easily accounted for. The other 10 percent were characterized as “a number of incredible reports from credible observers.” The Air Force rejected the theories that the sightings involved US or Soviet secret weapons development or that they involved “men from Mars”; there was no evidence to support these concepts. The Air Force briefers sought to explain these UFO reports as the misinterpretation of known objects or little understood natural phenomena. (19) Air Force and CIA officials agreed that outside knowledge of Agency interest in UFOs would make the problem more serious. (20) This concealment of CIA interest contributed greatly to later charges of a CIA conspiracy and coverup.

Amateur photographs of alleged UFOs

Passoria, New Jersey, 31 July 1952

Sheffield, England, 4 March 1962
& Minneapolis, Minnesota, 20 October 1960

The CIA Study Group also searched the Soviet press for UFO reports, but found none, causing the group to conclude that the absence of reports had to have been the result of deliberate Soviet Government policy. The group also envisioned the USSR’s possible use of UFOs as a psychological warfare tool. In addition, they worried that, if the US air warning system should be deliberately overloaded by UFO sightings, the Soviets might gain a surprise advantage in any nuclear attack. (21)

Because of the tense Cold War situation and increased Soviet capabilities, the CIA Study Group saw serious national security concerns in the flying saucer situation. The group believed that the Soviets could use UFO reports to touch off mass hysteria and panic in the United States. The group also believed that the Soviets might use UFO sightings to overload the US air warning system so that it could not distinguish real targets from phantom UFOs. H. Marshall Chadwell, Assistant Director of OSI, added that he considered the problem of such importance “that it should be brought to the attention of the National Security Council, in order that a communitywide coordinated effort towards it solution may be initiated.” (22)

Chadwell briefed DCI Smith on the subject of UFOs in December 1952. He urged action because he was convinced that “something was going on that must have immediate attention” and that “sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major US defense installations are of such nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or known types of aerial vehicles.” He drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the National Security Council (NSC) and a proposed NSC Directive establishing the investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. (23) Chadwell also urged Smith to establish an external research project of top-level scientists to study the problem of UFOs. (24) After this briefing, Smith directed DDI Amory to prepare a NSC Intelligence Directive (NSCID) for submission to the NSC on the need to continue the investigation of UFOs and to coordinate such investigations with the Air Force. (25)

The Robertson Panel, 1952-53

On 4 December 1952, the Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC) took up the issue of UFOs. (26) Amory, as acting chairman, presented DCI Smith’s request to the committee that it informally discuss the subject of UFOs. Chadwell then briefly reviewed the situation and the active program of the ATIC relating to UFOs. The committee agreed that the DCI should “enlist the services of selected scientists to review and appraise the available evidence in the light of pertinent scientific theories” and draft an NSCID on the subject. (27) Maj. Gen. John A. Samford, Director of Air Force Intelligence, offered full cooperation. (28)

At the same time, Chadwell looked into British efforts in this area. He learned the British also were active in studying the UFO phenomena. An eminent British scientist, R. V. Jones, headed a standing committee created in June 1951 on flying saucers. Jones’ and his committee’s conclusions on UFOs were similar to those of Agency officials: the sightings were not enemy aircraft but misrepresentations of natural phenomena. The British noted, however, that during a recent air show RAF pilots and senior military officials had observed a “perfect flying saucer.” Given the press response, according to the officer, Jones was having a most difficult time trying to correct public opinion regarding UFOs. The public was convinced they were real. (29)

In January 1953, Chadwell and H. P. Robertson, a noted physicist from the California Institute of Technology, put together a distinguished panel of nonmilitary scientists to study the UFO issue. It included Robertson as chairman; Samuel A. Goudsmit, a nuclear physicist from the Brookhaven National Laboratories; Luis Alvarez, a high-energy physicist; Thornton Page, the deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Operations Research Office and an expert on radar and electronics; and Lloyd Berkner, a director of the Brookhaven National Laboratories and a specialist in geophysics. (30)

The charge to the panel was to review the available evidence on UFOs and to consider the possible dangers of the phenomena to US national security. The panel met from 14 to 17 January 1953. It reviewed Air Force data on UFO case histories and, after spending 12 hours studying the phenomena, declared that reasonable explanations could be suggested for most, if not all, sightings. For example, after reviewing motion-picture film taken of a UFO sighting near Tremonton, Utah, on 2 July 1952 and one near Great Falls, Montana, on 15 August 1950, the panel concluded that the images on the Tremonton film were caused by sunlight reflecting off seagulls and that the images at Great Falls were sunlight reflecting off the surface of two Air Force interceptors. (31)

The panel concluded unanimously that there was no evidence of a direct threat to national security in the UFO sightings. Nor could the panel find any evidence that the objects sighted might be extraterrestrials. It did find that continued emphasis on UFO reporting might threaten “the orderly functioning” of the government by clogging the channels of communication with irrelevant reports and by inducing “hysterical mass behavior” harmful to constituted authority. The panel also worried that potential enemies contemplating an attack on the United States might exploit the UFO phenomena and use them to disrupt US air defenses. (32)

To meet these problems, the panel recommended that the National Security Council debunk UFO reports and institute a policy of public education to reassure the public of the lack of evidence behind UFOs. It suggested using the mass media, advertising, business clubs, schools, and even the Disney corporation to get the message across. Reporting at the height of McCarthyism, the panel also recommended that such private UFO groups as the Civilian Flying Saucer Investigators in Los Angeles and the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization in Wisconsin be monitored for subversive activities. (33)

The Robertson panel’s conclusions were strikingly similar to those of the earlier Air Force project reports on SIGN and GRUDGE and to those of the CIA’s own OSI Study Group. All investigative groups found that UFO reports indicated no direct threat to national security and no evidence of visits by extraterrestrials.

Following the Robertson panel findings, the Agency abandoned efforts to draft an NSCID on UFOs. (34) The Scientific Advisory Panel on UFOs (the Robertson panel) submitted its report to the IAC, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of the Federal Civil Defense Administration, and the Chairman of the National Security Resources Board. CIA officials said no further consideration of the subject appeared warranted, although they continued to monitor sightings in the interest of national security. Philip Strong and Fred Durant from OSI also briefed the Office of National Estimates on the findings. (35) CIA officials wanted knowledge of any Agency interest in the subject of flying saucers carefully restricted, noting not only that the Robertson panel report was classified but also that any mention of CIA sponsorship of the panel was forbidden. This attitude would later cause the Agency major problems relating to its credibility. (36)

The 1950s: Fading CIA Interest in UFOs

After the report of the Robertson panel, Agency officials put the entire issue of UFOs on the back burner. In May 1953, Chadwell transferred chief responsibility for keeping abreast of UFOs to OSI’s Physics and Electronic Division, while the Applied Science Division continued to provide any necessary support. (37) Todos M. Odarenko, chief of the Physics and Electronics Division, did not want to take on the problem, contending that it would require too much of his division’s analytic and clerical time. Given the findings of the Robertson panel, he proposed to consider the project “inactive” and to devote only one analyst part-time and a file clerk to maintain a reference file of the activities of the Air Force and other agencies on UFOs. Neither the Navy nor the Army showed much interest in UFOs, according to Odarenko. (38)

A nonbeliever in UFOs, Odarenko sought to have his division relieved of the responsibility for monitoring UFO reports. In 1955, for example, he recommended that the entire project be terminated because no new information concerning UFOs had surfaced. Besides, he argued, his division was facing a serious budget reduction and could not spare the resources. (39) Chadwell and other Agency officials, however, continued to worry about UFOs. Of special concern were overseas reports of UFO sightings and claims that German engineers held by the Soviets were developing a “flying saucer” as a future weapon of war. (40)

To most US political and military leaders, the Soviet Union by the mid-1950s had become a dangerous opponent. Soviet progress in nuclear weapons and guided missiles was particularly alarming. In the summer of 1949, the USSR had detonated an atomic bomb. In August 1953, only nine months after the United States tested a hydrogen bomb, the Soviets detonated one. In the spring of 1953, a top secret RAND Corporation study also pointed out the vulnerability of SAC bases to a surprise attack by Soviet long-range bombers. Concern over the danger of a Soviet attack on the United States continued to grow, and UFO sightings added to the uneasiness of US policymakers.

Mounting reports of UFOs over eastern Europe and Afghanistan also prompted concern that the Soviets were making rapid progress in this area. CIA officials knew that the British and Canadians were already experimenting with “flying saucers.” Project Y was a Canadian-British-US developmental operation to produce a nonconventional flying-saucer-type aircraft, and Agency officials feared the Soviets were testing similar devices. (41)

Adding to the concern was a flying saucer sighting by US Senator Richard Russell and his party while traveling on a train in the USSR in October 1955. After extensive interviews of Russell and his group, however, CIA officials concluded that Russell’s sighting did not support the theory that the Soviets had developed saucerlike or unconventional aircraft. Herbert Scoville, Jr., the Assistant Director of OSI, wrote that the objects observed probably were normal jet aircraft in a steep climb. (42)

Wilton E. Lexow, head of the CIA’s Applied Sciences Division, was also skeptical. He questioned why the Soviets were continuing to develop conventional-type aircraft if they had a “flying saucer.” (43) Scoville asked Lexow to assume responsibility for fully assessing the capabilities and limitations of nonconventional aircraft and to maintain the OSI central file on the subject of UFOs.

CIA’s U-2 and OXCART as UFOs

In November 1954, CIA had entered into the world of high technology with its U-2 overhead reconnaissance project. Working with Lockheed’s Advanced Development facility in Burbank, California, known as the Skunk Works, and Kelly Johnson, an eminent aeronautical engineer, the Agency by August 1955 was testing a high-altitude experimental aircraft–the U-2. It could fly at 60,000 feet; in the mid-1950s, most commercial airliners flew between 10,000 feet and 20,000 feet. Consequently, once the U-2 started test flights, commercial pilots and air traffic controllers began reporting a large increase in UFO sightings. (44) (U)

The early U-2s were silver (they were later painted black) and reflected the rays from the sun, especially at sunrise and sunset. They often appeared as fiery objects to observers below. Air Force BLUE BOOK investigators aware of the secret U-2 flights tried to explain away such sightings by linking them to natural phenomena such as ice crystals and temperature inversions. By checking with the Agency’s U-2 Project Staff in Washington, BLUE BOOK investigators were able to attribute many UFO sightings to U-2 flights. They were careful, however, not to reveal the true cause of the sighting to the public.

According to later estimates from CIA officials who worked on the U-2 project and the OXCART (SR-71, or Blackbird) project, over half of all UFO reports from the late 1950s through the 1960s were accounted for by manned reconnaissance flights (namely the U-2) over the United States. (45) This led the Air Force to make misleading and deceptive statements to the public in order to allay public fears and to protect an extraordinarily sensitive national security project. While perhaps justified, this deception added fuel to the later conspiracy theories and the coverup controversy of the 1970s. The percentage of what the Air Force considered unexplained UFO sightings fell to 5.9 percent in 1955 and to 4 percent in 1956. (46)

At the same time, pressure was building for the release of the Robertson panel report on UFOs. In 1956, Edward Ruppelt, former head of the Air Force BLUE BOOK project, publicly revealed the existence of the panel. A best-selling book by UFOlogist Donald Keyhoe, a retired Marine Corps major, advocated release of all government information relating to UFOs. Civilian UFO groups such as the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) and the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) immediately pushed for release of the Robertson panel report. (47) Under pressure, the Air Force approached CIA for permission to declassify and release the report. Despite such pressure, Philip Strong, Deputy Assistant Director of OSI, refused to declassify the report and declined to disclose CIA sponsorship of the panel. As an alternative, the Agency prepared a sanitized version of the report which deleted any reference to CIA and avoided mention of any psychological warfare potential in the UFO controversy. (48)

The demands, however, for more government information about UFOs did not let up. On 8 March 1958, Keyhoe, in an interview with Mike Wallace of CBS, claimed deep CIA involvement with UFOs and Agency sponsorship of the Robertson panel. This prompted a series of letters to the Agency from Keyhoe and Dr. Leon Davidson, a chemical engineer and UFOlogist. They demanded the release of the full Robertson panel report and confirmation of CIA involvement in the UFO issue. Davidson had convinced himself that the Agency, not the Air Force, carried most of the responsibility for UFO analysis and that “the activities of the US Government are responsible for the flying saucer sightings of the last decade.” Indeed, because of the undisclosed U-2 and OXCART flights, Davidson was closer to the truth than he suspected. CI, nevertheless held firm to its policy of not revealing its role in UFO investigations and refused to declassify the full Robertson panel report. (49)

In a meeting with Air Force representatives to discuss how to handle future inquires such as Keyhoe’s and Davidson’s, Agency officials confirmed their opposition to the declassification of the full report and worried that Keyhoe had the ear of former DCI VAdm. Roscoe Hillenkoetter, who served on the board of governors of NICAP. They debated whether to have CIA General Counsel Lawrence R. Houston show Hillenkoetter the report as a possible way to defuse the situation. CIA officer Frank Chapin also hinted that Davidson might have ulterior motives, “some of them perhaps not in the best interest of this country,” and suggested bringing in the FBI to investigate. (50) Although the record is unclear whether the FBI ever instituted an investigation of Davidson or Keyhoe, or whether Houston ever saw Hillenkoetter about the Robertson report, Hillenkoetter did resign from the NICAP in 1962. (51)

The Agency was also involved with Davidson and Keyhoe in two rather famous UFO cases in the 1950s, which helped contribute to a growing sense of public distrust of CIA with regard to UFOs. One focused on what was reported to have been a tape recording of a radio signal from a flying saucer; the other on reported photographs of a flying saucer. The “radio code” incident began innocently enough in 1955, when two elderly sisters in Chicago, Mildred and Marie Maier, reported in the Journal of Space Flight their experiences with UFOs, including the recording of a radio program in which an unidentified code was reportedly heard. The sisters taped the program and other ham radio operators also claimed to have heard the “space message.” OSI became interested and asked the Scientific Contact Branch to obtain a copy of the recording. (52)

Field officers from the Contact Division (CD), one of whom was Dewelt Walker, made contact with the Maier sisters, who were “thrilled that the government was interested,” and set up a time to meet with them. (53) In trying to secure the tape recording, the Agency officers reported that they had stumbled upon a scene from Arsenic and Old Lace. “The only thing lacking was the elderberry wine,” Walker cabled Headquarters. After reviewing the sisters’ scrapbook of clippings from their days on the stage, the officers secured a copy of the recording. (54) OSI analyzed the tape and found it was nothing more than Morse code from a US radio station.

The matter rested there until UFOlogist Leon Davidson talked with the Maier sisters in 1957. The sisters remembered they had talked with a Mr. Walker who said he was from the US Air Force. Davidson then wrote to a Mr. Walker, believing him to be a US Air Force Intelligence Officer from Wright-Patterson, to ask if the tape had been analyzed at ATIC. Dewelt Walker replied to Davidson that the tape had been forwarded to proper authorities for evaluation, and no information was available concerning the results. Not satisfied, and suspecting that Walker was really a CIA officer, Davidson next wrote DCI Allen Dulles demanding to learn what the coded message revealed and who Mr. Walker was. (55) The Agency, wanting to keep Walker’s identity as a CIA employee secret, replied that another agency of the government had analyzed the tape in question and that Davidson would be hearing from the Air Force. (56) On 5 August, the Air Force wrote Davidson saying that Walker “was and is an Air Force Officer” and that the tape “was analyzed by another government organization.” The Air Force letter confirmed that the recording contained only identifiable Morse code which came from a known US-licensed radio station. (57)

Davidson wrote Dulles again. This time he wanted to know the identity of the Morse operator and of the agency that had conducted the analysis. CIA and the Air Force were now in a quandary. The Agency had previously denied that it had actually analyzed the tape. The Air Force had also denied analyzing the tape and claimed that Walker was an Air Force officer. CIA officers, under cover, contacted Davidson in Chicago and promised to get the code translation and the identification of the transmitter, if possible. (58)

In another attempt to pacify Davidson, a CIA officer, again under cover and wearing his Air Force uniform, contacted Davidson in New York City. The CIA officer explained that there was no super agency involved and that Air Force policy was not to disclose who was doing what. While seeming to accept this argument, Davidson nevertheless pressed for disclosure of the recording message and the source. The officer agreed to see what he could do. (59) After checking with Headquarters, the CIA officer phoned Davidson to report that a thorough check had been made and, because the signal was of known US origin, the tape and the notes made at the time had been destroyed to conserve file space. (60)

Incensed over what he perceived was a runaround, Davidson told the CIA officer that “he and his agency, whichever it was, were acting like Jimmy Hoffa and the Teamster Union in destroying records which might indict them.” (61) Believing that any more contact with Davidson would only encourage more speculation, the Contact Division washed its hands of the issue by reporting to the DCI and to ATIC that it would not respond to or try to contact Davidson again. (62) Thus, a minor, rather bizarre incident, handled poorly by both CIA and the Air Force, turned into a major flap that added fuel to the growing mystery surrounding UFOs and CIA’s role in their investigation.

Another minor flap a few months later added to the growing questions surrounding the Agency’s true role with regard to flying saucers. CIA’s concern over secrecy again made matters worse. In 1958, Major Keyhoe charged that the Agency was deliberately asking eyewitnesses of UFOs not to make their sightings public. (63)

The incident stemmed from a November 1957 request from OSI to the CD to obtain from Ralph C. Mayher, a photographer for KYW-TV in Cleveland, Ohio, certain photographs he took in 1952 of an unidentified flying object. Harry Real, a CD officer, contacted Mayher and obtained copies of the photographs for analysis. On 12 December 1957, John Hazen, another CD officer, returned the five photographs of the alleged UFO to Mayher without comment. Mayher asked Hazen for the Agency’s evaluation of the photos, explaining that he was trying to organize a TV program to brief the public on UFOs. He wanted to mention on the show that a US intelligence organization had viewed the photographs and thought them of interest. Although he advised Mayher not to take this approach, Hazen stated that Mayher was a US citizen and would have to make his own decision as to what to do. (64)

Keyhoe later contacted Mayher, who told him his story of CIA and the photographs. Keyhoe then asked the Agency to confirm Hazen’s employment in writing, in an effort to expose CIA’s role in UFO investigations. The Agency refused, despite the fact that CD field representatives were normally overt and carried credentials identifying their Agency association. DCI Dulles’s aide, John S. Earman, merely sent Keyhoe a noncommittal letter noting that, because UFOs were of primary concern to the Department of the Air Force, the Agency had referred his letter to the Air Force for an appropriate response. Like the response to Davidson, the Agency reply to Keyhoe only fueled the speculation that the Agency was deeply involved in UFO sightings. Pressure for release of CIA information on UFOs continued to grow. (65)

Although CIA had a declining interest in UFO cases, it continued to monitor UFO sightings. Agency officials felt the need to keep informed on UFOs if only to alert the DCI to the more sensational UFO reports and flaps. (66)

The 1960s: Declining CIA Involvement and Mounting Controversy

In the early 1960s, Keyhoe, Davidson, and other UFOlogists maintained their assault on the Agency for release of UFO information. Davidson now claimed that CIA “was solely responsible for creating the Flying Saucer furor as a tool for cold war psychological warfare since 1951.” Despite calls for Congressional hearings and the release of all materials relating to UFOs, little changed. (67)

In 1964, however, following high-level White House discussions on what to do if an alien intelligence was discovered in space and a new outbreak of UFO reports and sightings, DCI John McCone asked for an updated CIA evaluation of UFOs. Responding to McCone’s request, OSI asked the CD to obtain various recent samples and reports of UFO sightings from NICAP. With Keyhoe, one of the founders, no longer active in the organization, CIA officers met with Richard H. Hall, the acting director. Hall gave the officers samples from the NICAP database on the most recent sightings. (68)

After OSI officers had reviewed the material, Donald F. Chamberlain, OSI Assistant Director, assured McCone that little had changed since the early 1950s. There was still no evidence that UFOs were a threat to the security of the United States or that they were of “foreign origin.” Chamberlain told McCone that OSI still monitored UFO reports, including the official Air Force investigation, Project BLUE BOOK. (69)

At the same time that CIA was conducting this latest internal review of UFOs, public pressure forced the Air Force to establish a special ad hoc committee to review BLUE BOOK. Chaired by Dr. Brian O’Brien, a member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, the panel included Carl Sagan, the famous astronomer from Cornell University. Its report offered nothing new. It declared that UFOs did not threaten the national security and that it could find “no UFO case which represented technological or scientific advances outside of a terrestrial framework.” The committee did recommend that UFOs be studied intensively, with a leading university acting as a coordinator for the project, to settle the issue conclusively. (70)

The House Armed Services Committee also held brief hearings on UFOs in 1966 that produced similar results. Secretary of the Air Force Harold Brown assured the committee that most sightings were easily explained and that there was no evidence that “strangers from outer space” had been visiting Earth. He told the committee members, however, that the Air Force would keep an open mind and continue to investigate all UFO reports. (71)

Following the report of its O’Brien Committee, the House hearings on UFOs, and Dr. Robertson’s disclosure on a CBS Reports program that CIA indeed had been involved in UFO analysis, the Air Force in July 1966 again approached the Agency for declassification of the entire Robertson panel report of 1953 and the full Durant report on the Robertson panel deliberations and findings. The Agency again refused to budge. Karl H. Weber, Deputy Director of OSI, wrote the Air Force that “We are most anxious that further publicity not be given to the information that the panel was sponsored by the CIA.” Weber noted that there was already a sanitized version available to the public. (72) Weber’s response was rather shortsighted and ill considered. It only drew more attention to the 13-year-old Robertson panel report and CIA’s role in the investigation of UFOs. The science editor of The Saturday Review drew nationwide attention to the CIA’s role in investigating UFOs when he published an article criticizing the “sanitized version” of the 1953 Robertson panel report and called for release of the entire document. (73)

Unknown to CIA officials, Dr. James E. McDonald, a noted atmospheric physicist from the University of Arizona, had already seen the Durant report on the Robertson panel proceedings at Wright-Patterson on 6 June 1966. When McDonald returned to Wright-Patterson on 30 June to copy the report, however, the Air Force refused to let him see it again, stating that it was a CIA classified document. Emerging as a UFO authority, McDonald publicly claimed that the CIA was behind the Air Force secrecy policies and coverup. He demanded the release of the full Robertson panel report and the Durant report. (74)

Bowing to public pressure and the recommendation of its own O’Brien Committee, the Air Force announced in August 1966 that it was seeking a contract with a leading university to undertake a program of intensive investigations of UFO sightings. The new program was designed to blunt continuing charges that the US Government had concealed what it knew about UFOs. On 7 October, the University of Colorado accepted a $325,000 contract with the Air Force for an 18-month study of flying saucers. Dr. Edward U. Condon, a physicist at Colorado and a former Director of the National Bureau of Standards, agreed to head the program. Pronouncing himself an “agnostic” on the subject of UFOs, Condon observed that he had an open mind on the question and thought that possible extraterritorial origins were “improbable but not impossible.” (75) Brig. Gen. Edward Giller, USAF, and Dr. Thomas Ratchford from the Air Force Research and Development Office became the Air Force coordinators for the project.

In February 1967, Giller contacted Arthur C. Lundahl, Director of CIA’s National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC), and proposed an informal liaison through which NPIC could provide the Condon Committee with technical advice and services in examining photographs of alleged UFOs. Lundahl and DDI R. Jack Smith approved the arrangement as a way of “preserving a window” on the new effort. They wanted the CIA and NPIC to maintain a low profile, however, and to take no part in writing any conclusions for the committee. No work done for the committee by NPIC was to be formally acknowledged. (76)

Ratchford next requested that Condon and his committee be allowed to visit NPIC to discuss the technical aspects of the problem and to view the special equipment NPIC had for photoanalysis. On 20 February 1967, Condon and four members of his committee visited NPIC. Lundahl emphasized to the group that any NPIC work to assist the committee must not be identified as CIA work. Moreover, work performed by NPIC would be strictly of a technical nature. After receiving these guidelines, the group heard a series of briefings on the services and equipment not available elsewhere that CIA had used in its analysis of some UFO photography furnished by Ratchford. Condon and his committee were impressed. (77)

Condon and the same group met again in May 1967 at NPIC to hear an analysis of UFO photographs taken at Zanesville, Ohio. The analysis debunked that sighting. The committee was again impressed with the technical work performed, and Condon remarked that for the first time a scientific analysis of a UFO would stand up to investigation. (78) The group also discussed the committee’s plans to call on US citizens for additional photographs and to issue guidelines for taking useful UFO photographs. In addition, CIA officials agreed that the Condon Committee could release the full Durant report with only minor deletions.

In April 1969, Condon and his committee released their report on UFOs. The report concluded that little, if anything, had come from the study of UFOs in the past 21 years and that further extensive study of UFO sightings was unwarranted. It also recommended that the Air Force special unit, Project BLUE BOOK, be discontinued. It did not mention CIA participation in the Condon committee’s investigation. (79) A special panel established by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the Condon report and concurred with its conclusion that “no high priority in UFO investigations is warranted by data of the past two decades.” It concluded its review by declaring, “On the basis of present knowledge, the least likely explanation of UFOs is the hypothesis of extraterrestrial visitations by intelligent beings.” Following the recommendations of the Condon Committee and the National Academy of Sciences, the Secretary of the Air Force, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., announced on 17 December 1969 the termination of BLUE BOOK. (80)

The 1970s and 1980s: The UFO Issue Refuses To Die

The Condon report did not satisfy many UFOlogists, who considered it a coverup for CIA activities in UFO research. Additional sightings in the early 1970s fueled beliefs that the CIA was somehow involved in a vast conspiracy. On 7 June 1975, William Spaulding, head of a small UFO group, Ground Saucer Watch (GSW), wrote to CIA requesting a copy of the Robertson panel report and all records relating to UFOs. (81) Spaulding was convinced that the Agency was withholding major files on UFOs. Agency officials provided Spaulding with a copy of the Robertson panel report and of the Durant report. (82)

On 14 July 1975, Spaulding again wrote the Agency questioning the authenticity of the reports he had received and alleging a CIA coverup of its UFO activities. Gene Wilson, CIA’s Information and Privacy Coordinator, replied in an attempt to satisfy Spaulding, “At no time prior to the formation of the Robertson Panel and subsequent to the issuance of the panel’s report has CIA engaged in the study of the UFO phenomena.” The Robertson panel report, according to Wilson, was “the summation of Agency interest and involvement in UFOs.” Wilson also inferred that there were no additional documents in CIA’s possession that related to UFOs. Wilson was ill informed. (83)

In September 1977, Spaulding and GSW, unconvinced by Wilson’s response, filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit against the Agency that specifically requested all UFO documents in CIA’s possession. Deluged by similar FOIA requests for Agency information on UFOs, CIA officials agreed, after much legal maneuvering, to conduct a “reasonable search” of CIA files for UFO materials. (84) Despite an Agency-wide unsympathetic attitude toward the suit, Agency officials, led by Launie Ziebell from the Office of General Counsel, conducted a thorough search for records pertaining to UFOs. Persistent, demanding, and even threatening at times, Ziebell and his group scoured the Agency. They even turned up an old UFO file under a secretary’s desk. The search finally produced 355 documents totaling approximately 900 pages. On 14 December 1978, the Agency released all but 57 documents of about 100 pages to GSW. It withheld these 57 documents on national security grounds and to protect sources and methods. (85)

Although the released documents produced no smoking gun and revealed only a low-level Agency interest in the UFO phenomena after the Robertson panel report of 1953, the press treated the release in a sensational manner. The New York Times, for example, claimed that the declassified documents confirmed intensive government concern over UFOs and that the Agency was secretly involved in the surveillance of UFOs. (86) GSW then sued for the release of the withheld documents, claiming that the Agency was still holding out key information. (87) It was much like the John F. Kennedy assassination issue. No matter how much material the Agency released and no matter how dull and prosaic the information, people continued to believe in a Agency coverup and conspiracy.

DCI Stansfield Turner was so upset when he read The New York Times article that he asked his senior officers, “Are we in UFOs?” After reviewing the records, Don Wortman, Deputy Director for Administration, reported to Turner that there was “no organized Agency effort to do research in connection with UFO phenomena nor has there been an organized effort to collect intelligence on UFOs since the 1950s.” Wortman assured Turner that the Agency records held only “sporadic instances of correspondence dealing with the subject,” including various kinds of reports of UFO sightings. There was no Agency program to collect actively information on UFOs, and the material released to GSW had few deletions. (88) Thus assured, Turner had the General Counsel press for a summary judgment against the new lawsuit by GSW. In May 1980, the courts dismissed the lawsuit, finding that the Agency had conducted a thorough and adequate search in good faith. (89)

During the late 1970s and 1980s, the Agency continued its low-key interest in UFOs and UFO sightings. While most scientists now dismissed flying saucers reports as a quaint part of the 1950s and 1960s, some in the Agency and in the Intelligence Community shifted their interest to studying parapsychology and psychic phenomena associated with UFO sightings. CIA officials also looked at the UFO problem to determine what UFO sightings might tell them about Soviet progress in rockets and missiles and reviewed its counterintelligence aspects. Agency analysts from the Life Science Division of OSI and OSWR officially devoted a small amount of their time to issues relating to UFOs. These included counterintelligence concerns that the Soviets and the KGB were using US citizens and UFO groups to obtain information on sensitive US weapons development programs (such as the Stealth aircraft), the vulnerability of the US air-defense network to penetration by foreign missiles mimicking UFOs, and evidence of Soviet advanced technology associated with UFO sightings.

CIA also maintained Intelligence Community coordination with other agencies regarding their work in parapsychology, psychic phenomena, and “remote viewing” experiments. In general, the Agency took a conservative scientific view of these unconventional scientific issues. There was no formal or official UFO project within the Agency in the 1980s, and Agency officials purposely kept files on UFOs to a minimum to avoid creating records that might mislead the public if released. (90)

The 1980s also produced renewed charges that the Agency was still withholding documents relating to the 1947 Roswell incident, in which a flying saucer supposedly crashed in New Mexico, and the surfacing of documents which purportedly revealed the existence of a top secret US research and development intelligence operation responsible only to the President on UFOs in the late 1940s and early 1950s. UFOlogists had long argued that, following a flying saucer crash in New Mexico in 1947, the government not only recovered debris from the crashed saucer but also four or five alien bodies. According to some UFOlogists, the government clamped tight security around the project and has refused to divulge its investigation results and research ever since. (91) In September 1994, the US Air Force released a new report on the Roswell incident that concluded that the debris found in New Mexico in 1947 probably came from a once top secret balloon operation, Project MOGUL, designed to monitor the atmosphere for evidence of Soviet nuclear tests. (92)

Circa 1984, a series of documents surfaced which some UFOlogists said proved that President Truman created a top secret committee in 1947, Majestic-12, to secure the recovery of UFO wreckage from Roswell and any other UFO crash sight for scientific study and to examine any alien bodies recovered from such sites. Most if not all of these documents have proved to be fabrications. Yet the controversy persists. (93)

Like the JFK assassination conspiracy theories, the UFO issue probably will not go away soon, no matter what the Agency does or says. The belief that we are not alone in the universe is too emotionally appealing and the distrust of our government is too pervasive to make the issue amenable to traditional scientific studies of rational explanation and evidence.

Notes

(1) See the 1973 Gallup Poll results printed in The New York Times, 29 November 1973, p. 45 and Philip J. Klass, UFOs: The Public Deceived (New York: Prometheus Books, 1983), p. 3.

(2) See Klass, UFOs, p. 3; James S. Gordon, “The UFO Experience,” Atlantic Monthly (August 1991), pp. 82-92; David Michael Jacobs, The UFO Controversy in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975); Howard Blum, Out There: The Government’s Secret Quest for Extraterrestrials (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990); Timothy Good, Above Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Cover-Up (New York: William Morrow, 1987); and Whitley Strieber, Communion: The True Story (New York: Morrow, 1987).

(3) In September 1993 John Peterson, an acquaintance of Woolsey’s, first approached the DCI with a package of heavily sanitized CIA material on UFOs released to UFOlogist Stanton T. Friedman. Peterson and Friedman wanted to know the reasons for the redactions. Woolsey agreed to look into the matter. See Richard J. Warshaw, Executive Assistant, note to author, 1 November 1994; Warshaw, note to John H. Wright, Information and Privacy Coordinator, 31 January 1994; and Wright, memorandum to Executive Secretariat, 2 March 1994. (Except where noted, all citations to CIA records in this article are to the records collected for the 1994 Agency-wide search that are held by the Executive Assistant to the DCI).

(4) See Hector Quintanilla, Jr., “The Investigation of UFOs,” Vol. 10, No. 4, Studies in Intelligence (fall 1966): pp.95-110 and CIA, unsigned memorandum, “Flying Saucers,” 14 August 1952. See also Good, Above Top Secret, p. 253. During World War II, US pilots reported “foo fighters” (bright lights trailing US aircraft). Fearing they might be Japanese or German secret weapons, OSS investigated but could find no concrete evidence of enemy weapons and often filed such reports in the “crackpot” category. The OSS also investigated possible sightings of German V-1 and V-2 rockets before their operational use during the war. See Jacobs, UFO Controversy, p. 33. The Central Intelligence Group, the predecessor of the CIA, also monitored reports of “ghost rockets” in Sweden in 1946. See CIG, Intelligence Report, 9 April 1947.

(5) Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 156 and Quintanilla, “The Investigation of UFOs,” p. 97.

(6) See US Air Force, Air Material Command, “Unidentified Aerial Objects: Project SIGN, no. F-TR 2274, IA, February 1949, Records of the US Air Force Commands, Activities and Organizations, Record Group 341, National Archives, Washington, DC.

(7) See US Air Force, Projects GRUDGE and BLUEBOOK Reports 1- 12 (Washington, DC; National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1968) and Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, pp. 50-54.

(8) See Cabell, memorandum to Commanding Generals Major Air Commands, “Reporting of Information on Unconventional Aircraft,” 8 September 1950 and Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 65.

(9) See Air Force, Projects GRUDGE and BLUE BOOK and Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 67.

(10) See Edward Tauss, memorandum for Deputy Assistant Director, SI, “Flying Saucers,” 1 August 1952. See also United Kingdom, Report by the “Flying Saucer” Working Party, “Unidentified Flying Objects,” no date (approximately 1950).

(11) See Dr. Stone, OSI, memorandum to Dr. Willard Machle, OSI, 15 March 1949 and Ralph L. Clark, Acting Assistant Director, OSI, memorandum for DDI, “Recent Sightings of Unexplained Objects,” 29 July 1952.

(12) Stone, memorandum to Machle. See also Clark, memorandum for DDI, 29 July 1952.

(13) See Klass, UFOs, p. 15. For a brief review of the Washington sightings see Good, Above Top Secret, pp. 269-271.

(14) See Ralph L. Clark, Acting Assistant Director, OSI, memorandum to DDI Robert Amory, Jr., 29 July 1952. OSI and OCI were in the Directorate of Intelligence. Established in 1948, OSI served as the CIA’s focal point for the analysis of foreign scientific and technological developments. In 1980, OSI was merged into the Office of Science and Weapons Research. The Office of Current Intelligence (OCI), established on 15 January 1951 was to provide all-source current intelligence to the President and the National Security Council.

(15) Tauss, memorandum for Deputy Assistant Director, SI (Philip Strong), 1 August 1952.

(16) On 2 January 1952, DCI Walter Bedell Smith created a Deputy Directorate for Intelligence (DDI) composed of six overt CIA organizations–OSI, OCI, Office of Collection and Dissemination, Office National Estimates, Office of Research and Reports, and the Office of Intelligence Coordination–to produce intelligence analysis for US policymakers.

(17) See Minutes of Branch Chief’s Meeting, 11 August 1952.

(18) Smith expressed his opinions at a meeting in the DCI Conference Room attended by his top officers. See Deputy Chief, Requirements Staff, FI, memorandum for Deputy Director, Plans, “Flying Saucers,” 20 August 1952, Directorate of Operations Records, Information Management Staff, Job 86-00538R, Box 1.

(19) See CIA memorandum, unsigned, “Flying Saucers,” 11 August 1952.

(20) See CIA, memorandum, unsigned, “Flying Saucers,” 14 August 1952.

(21) See CIA, memorandum, unsigned, “Flying Saucers,” 19 August 1952.

(22) See Chadwell, memorandum for Smith, 17 September 1952 and 24 September 1952, “Flying Saucers.” See also Chadwell, memorandum for DCI Smith, 2 October 1952 and Klass, UFOs, pp. 23-26.

(23) Chadwell, memorandum for DCI with attachments, 2 December 1952. See also Klass, UFOs, pp. 26-27 and Chadwell, memorandum, 25 November 1952.

(24) See Chadwell, memorandum, 25 November 1952 and Chadwell, memorandum, “Approval in Principle – External Research Project Concerned with Unidentified Flying Objects,” no date. See also Philip G. Strong, OSI, memorandum for the record, “Meeting with Dr. Julius A. Stratton, Executive Vice President and Provost, MIT and Dr. Max Millikan, Director of CENIS.” Strong believed that in order to undertake such a review they would need the full backing and support of DCI Smith.

(25) See Chadwell, memorandum for DCI, “”Unidentified Flying Objects,” 2 December 1952. See also Chadwell, memorandum for Amory, DDI, “Approval in Principle – External Research Project Concerned with Unidentified Flying Objects,” no date.

(26) The IAC was created in 1947 to serve as a coordinating body in establishing intelligence requirements. Chaired by the DCI, the IAC included representatives from the Department of State, the Army, the Air Force, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the FBI, and the AEC.

(27) See Klass, UFOs, p. 27.

(28) See Richard D. Drain, Acting Secretary, IAC, “Minutes of Meeting held in Director’s Conference Room, Administration Building, CIA,” 4 December 1952.

(29) See Chadwell, memorandum for the record, “British Activity in the Field of UFOs,” 18 December 1952.

(30) See Chadwell, memorandum for DCI, “Consultants for Advisory Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects,” 9 January 1953; Curtis Peebles, Watch the Skies! A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994). pp. 73-90; and Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, pp. 91-92.

(31) See Fred C. Durant III, Report on the Robertson Panel Meeting, January 1953. Durant, on contract with OSI and a past president of the American Rocket Society, attended the Robertson panel meetings and wrote a summary of the proceedings.

(32) See Report of the Scientific Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects (the Robertson Report), 17 January 1953 and the Durant report on the panel discussions.

(33) See Robertson Report and Durant Report. See also Good, Above Top Secret, pp. 337-38, Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 95, and Klass, UFO’s, pp. 28-29.

(34) See Reber, memorandum to IAC, 18 February 1953.

(35) See Chadwell, memorandum for DDI, “Unidentified Flying Objects,” 10 February 1953; Chadwell, letter to Robertson, 28 January 1953; and Reber, memorandum for IAC, “Unidentified Flying Objects,” 18 February 1953. On briefing the ONE, see Durant, memorandum for the record, “Briefing of ONE Board on Unidentified Flying Objects,” 30 January 1953 and CIA Summary disseminated to the field, “Unidentified Flying Objects,” 6 February 1953.

(36) See Chadwell, letter to Julius A. Stratton, Provost MIT, 27 January 1953.

(37) See Chadwell, memorandum for Chief, Physics and Electronics Division/OSI (Todos M. Odarenko), “Unidentified Flying Objects,” 27 May 1953.

(38) See Odarenko, memorandum to Chadwell, “Unidentified Flying Objects,” 3 July 1953. See also Odarenko, memorandum to Chadwell, “Current Status of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOB) Project,” 17 December 1953.

(39) See Odarenko, memorandum, “Unidentified Flying Objects,” 8 August 1955.

(40) See FBIS, report, “Military Unconventional Aircraft,” 18 August 1953 and various reports, “Military-Air, Unconventional Aircraft,” 1953, 1954, 1955.

(41) Developed by the Canadian affiliate of Britain’s A. V. Roe, Ltd., Project Y did produce a small-scale model that hovered a few feet off the ground. See Odarenko, memorandum to Chadwell, “Flying Saucer Type of Planes” 25 May 1954; Frederic C. E. Oder, memorandum to Odarenko, “USAF Project Y,” 21 May 1954; and Odarenko, T. M. Nordbeck, Ops/SI, and Sidney Graybeal, ASD/SI, memorandum for the record, “Intelligence Responsibilities for Non-Conventional Types of Air Vehicles,” 14 June 1954.

(42) See Reuben Efron, memorandum, “Observation of Flying Object Near Baku,” 13 October 1955; Scoville, memorandum for the record, “Interview with Senator Richard B. Russell,” 27 October 1955; and Wilton E. Lexow, memorandum for information, “Reported Sighting of Unconventional Aircraft,” 19 October 1955.

(43) See Lexow, memorandum for information, “Reported Sighting of Unconventional Aircraft,” 19 October 1955. See also Frank C. Bolser, memorandum for George C. Miller, Deputy Chief, SAD/SI, “Possible Soviet Flying Saucers, Check On;” Lexow, memorandum, “Possible Soviet Flying Saucers, Follow Up On,” 17 December 1954; Lexow, memorandum, “Possible Soviet Flying Saucers,” 1 December 1954; and A. H. Sullivan, Jr., memorandum, “Possible Soviet Flying Saucers,” 24 November 1954.

(44) See Gregory W. Pedlow and Donald E. Welzenbach, The Central Intelligence Agency and Overhead Reconnaissance: The U-2 and OXCART Programs, 1954-1974 (Washington, DC: CIA History Staff, 1992), pp. 72-73.

(45) See Pedlow and Welzenbach, Overhead Reconnaissance, pp. 72-73. This also was confirmed in a telephone interview between the author and John Parongosky, 26 July 1994. Parongosky oversaw the day-to-day affairs of the OXCART program.

(46) See Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 135.

(47) See Peebles, Watch the Skies, pp. 128-146; Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (New York: Doubleday, 1956); Keyhoe, The Flying Saucer Conspiracy (New York: Holt, 1955); and Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, pp. 347-49.

(48) See Strong, letter to Lloyd W. Berkner; Strong, letter to Thorton Page; Strong, letter to Robertson; Strong, letter to Samuel Goudsmit; Strong, letter to Luis Alvarez, 20 December 1957; and Strong, memorandum for Major James F. Byrne, Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence Department of the Air Force, “Declassification of the `Report of the Scientific Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects,'” 20 December 1957. See also Berkner, letter to Strong, 20 November 1957 and Page, letter to Strong, 4 December 1957. The panel members were also reluctant to have their association with the Agency released.

(49) See Wilton E. Lexow, memorandum for the record, “Comments on Letters Dealing with Unidentified Flying Objects,” 4 April 1958; J. S. Earman, letter to Major Lawrence J. Tacker, Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, Information Service, 4 April 1958; Davidson, letter to Berkner, 8 April 1958; Berkner, letter to Davidson, 18 April 1958; Berkner, letter to Strong, 21 April 1958; Davidson, letter to Tacker, 27 April 1958; Davidson, letter to Allen Dulles, 27 April 1958; Ruppelt, letter to Davidson, 7 May 1958; Strong, letter to Berkner, 8 May 1958; Davidson, letter to Berkner, 8 May 1958; Davidson, letter to Earman, 16 May 1958; Davidson, letter to Goudsmit, 18 May 1958; Davidson, letter to Page, 18 May 1958; and Tacker, letter to Davidson, 20 May 1958.

(50) See Lexow, memorandum for Chapin, 28 July 1958.

(51) See Good, Above Top Secret, pp. 346-47; Lexow, memorandum for the record, “Meeting with the Air Force Personnel Concerning Scientific Advisory Panel Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, dated 17 January 1953 (S),” 16 May 1958. See also La Rae L. Teel, Deputy Division Chief, ASD, memorandum for the record, “Meeting with Mr. Chapin on Replying to Leon Davidson’s UFO Letter and Subsequent Telephone Conversation with Major Thacker, [sic]” 22 May 1958.

(52) See Edwin M. Ashcraft, Chief, Contact Division (Scientific), memorandum to Chief, Chicago Office, “Radio Code Recording,” 4 March 1955 and Ashcraft, memorandum to Chief, Support Branch, OSI, 17 March 1955.

(53) The Contact Division was created to collect foreign intelligence information from sources within the United States. See the Directorate of Intelligence Historical Series, The Origin and Development of Contact Division, 11 July 1946­1 July 1965 (Washington, DC; CIA Historical Staff, June 1969).

(54) See George O. Forrest, Chief, Chicago Office, memorandum to Chief, Contact Division for Science, 11 March 1955.

(55) See Support Division (Connell), memorandum to Dewelt E. Walker, 25 April 1957.

(56) See J. Arnold Shaw, Assistant to the Director, letter to Davidson, 10 May 1957.

(57) See Support (Connell) memorandum to Lt. Col. V. Skakich, 27 August 1957 and Lamountain, memorandum to Support (Connell), 20 December 1957.

(58) See Lamountain, cable to Support (Connell), 31 July 1958.

(59) See Support (Connell) cable to Skakich, 3 October 1957 and Skakich, cable to Connell, 9 October 1957.

(60) See Skakich, cable to Connell, 9 October 1957.

(61) See R. P. B. Lohmann, memorandum for Chief, Contact Division, DO, 9 January 1958.

(62) See Support, cable to Skakich, 20 February 1958 and Connell (Support) cable to Lamountain, 19 December 1957.

(63) See Edwin M. Ashcraft, Chief, Contact Division, Office of Operations, memorandum for Austin Bricker, Jr., Assistant to the Director, “Inquiry by Major Donald E. Keyhoe on John Hazen’s Association with the Agency,” 22 January 1959.

(64) See John T. Hazen, memorandum to Chief, Contact Division, 12 December 1957. See also Ashcraft, memorandum to Cleveland Resident Agent, “Ralph E. Mayher,” 20 December 1957. According to this memorandum, the photographs were viewed at “a high level and returned to us without comment.” The Air Force held the original negatives. The CIA records were probably destroyed.

(65) The issue would resurface in the 1970s with the GSW FOIA court case.

(66) See Robert Amory, Jr., DDI, memorandum for Assistant Director/Scientific Intelligence, “Flying Saucers,” 26 March 1956. See also Wallace R. Lamphire, Office of the Director, Planning and Coordination Staff, memorandum for Richard M. Bissell, Jr., “Unidentified Flying Saucers (UFO),” 11 June 1957; Philip Strong, memorandum for the Director, NPIC, “Reported Photography of Unidentified Flying Objects,” 27 October 1958; Scoville, memorandum to Lawrence Houston, Legislative Counsel, “Reply to Honorable Joseph E. Garth,” 12 July 1961; and Houston, letter to Garth, 13 July 1961.

(67) See, for example, Davidson, letter to Congressman Joseph Garth, 26 June 1961 and Carl Vinson, Chairman, House Committee on Armed Services, letter to Rep. Robert A. Everett, 2 September 1964.

(68) See Maxwell W. Hunter, staff member, National Aeronautics and Space Council, Executive Office of the President, memorandum for Robert F. Parkard, Office of International Scientific Affairs, Department of State, “Thoughts on the Space Alien Race Question,” 18 July 1963, File SP 16, Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59, National Archives. See also F. J. Sheridan, Chief, Washington Office, memorandum to Chief, Contact Division, “National Investigation Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP),” 25 January 1965.

(69) Chamberlain, memorandum for DCI, “Evaluation of UFOs,” 26 January 1965.

(70) See Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 199 and US Air Force, Scientific Advisory Board, Ad Hoc Committee (O’Brien Committee) to Review Project BLUE BOOK, Special Report (Washington, DC: 1966). See also The New York Times, 14 August 1966, p. 70.

(71) See “Congress Reassured on Space Visits,” The New York Times, 6 April 1966.

(72) Weber, letter to Col. Gerald E. Jorgensen, Chief, Community Relations Division, Office of Information, US Air Force, 15 August 1966. The Durant report was a detailed summary of the Robertson panel proceedings.

(73) See John Lear, “The Disputed CIA Document on UFOs,” Saturday Review (September 3, 1966), p. 45. The Lear article was otherwise unsympathetic to UFO sightings and the possibility that extraterritorials were involved. The Air Force had been eager to provide Lear with the full report. See Walter L. Mackey, Executive Officer, memorandum for DCI, “Air Force Request to Declassify CIA Material on Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO),” 1 September 1966.

(74) See Klass, UFOs, p. 40, Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 214 and Everet Clark, “Physicist Scores `Saucer Status,'” The New York Times, 21 October 1966. See also James E. McDonald, “Statement on Unidentified Flying Objects,” submitted to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 29 July 1968.

(75) Condon is quoted in Walter Sullivan, “3 Aides Selected in Saucer Inquiry,” The New York Times, 8 October 1966. See also “An Outspoken Scientist, Edward Uhler Condon,” The New York Times, 8 October 1966. Condon, an outgoing, gruff scientist, had earlier become embroiled in a controversy with the House Unamerican Activities Committee that claimed Condon was “one of the weakest links in our atomic security.” See also Peebles, Watch the Skies, pp. 169-195.

(76) See Lundahl, memorandum for DDI, 7 February 1967.

(77) See memorandum for the record, “Visit of Dr. Condon to NPIC, 20 February 1967,” 23 February 1967. See also the analysis of the photographs in memorandum for Lundahl, “Photo Analysis of UFO Photography,” 17 February 1967.

(78) See memorandum for the record, “UFO Briefing for Dr. Edward Condon, 5 May 1967,” 8 May 1967 and attached “Guidelines to UFO Photographers and UFO Photographic Information Sheet.” See also Condon Committee, Press Release, 1 May 1967 and Klass, UFOs, p. 41. The Zaneville photographs turned out to be a hoax.

(79) See Edward U. Condon, Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (New York: Bantam Books, 1969) and Klass, UFOs, p. 41. The report contained the Durant report with only minor deletions.

(80) See Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense, News Release, “Air Force to Terminate Project BLUEBOOK,” 17 December 1969. The Air Force retired BLUEBOOK records to the USAF Archives at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. In 1976 the Air Force turned over all BLUEBOOK files to the National Archives and Records Administration, which made them available to the public without major restrictions. Some names have been withheld from the documents. See Klass, UFOs, p. 6.

(81) GSW was a small group of UFO buffs based in Phoenix, Arizona, and headed by William H. Spaulding.

(82) See Klass, UFOs, p. 8.

(83) See Wilson, letter to Spaulding, 26 March 1976 and GSW v. CIA Civil Action Case 78-859.

(84) GSW v. CIA Civil Action Case 78-859, p. 2.

(85) Author interview with Launie Ziebell, 23 June 1994 and author interview with OSI analyst, 21 July 1994. See also affidavits of George Owens, CIA Information and Privacy Act Coordinator; Karl H. Weber, OSI; Sidney D. Stembridge, Office of Security; and Rutledge P. Hazzard, DS&T; GSW v. CIA Civil Action Case 78-859 and Sayre Stevens, Deputy Director for National Foreign Assessment, memorandum for Thomas H. White, Assistant for Information, Information Review Committee, “FOIA Litigation Ground Saucer Watch,” no date.

(86) See “CIA Papers Detail UFO Surveillance,” The New York Times, 13 January 1979; Patrick Huyghe, “UFO Files: The Untold Story,” The New York Times Magazine, 14 October 1979, p. 106; and Jerome Clark, “UFO Update,” UFO Report, August 1979.

(87) Jerome Clark, “Latest UFO News Briefs From Around the World,” UFO Update, August 1979 and GSW v. CIA Civil Action No. 78-859.

(88) See Wortman, memorandum for DCI Turner, “Your Question, `Are we in UFOs?’ Annotated to The New York Times News Release Article,” 18 January 1979.

(89) See GSW v. CIA Civil Action 78-859. See also Klass, UFOs, pp. 10-12.

(90) See John Brennan, memorandum for Richard Warshaw, Executive Assistant, DCI, “Requested Information on UFOs,” 30 September 1993; Author interviews with OSWR analyst, 14 June 1994 and OSI analyst, 21 July 1994. This author found almost no documentation on Agency involvement with UFOs in the 1980s.

There is a DIA Psychic Center and the NSA studies parapsychology, that branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of such psychic phenomena as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, and telepathy. The CIA reportedly is also a member of an Incident Response Team to investigate UFO landings, if one should occur. This team has never met. The lack of solid CIA documentation on Agency UFO-related activities in the 1980s leaves the entire issue somewhat murky for this period.

Much of the UFO literature presently focuses on contactees and abductees. See John E. Mack, Abduction, Human Encounters with Aliens (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1994) and Howard Blum, Out There (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990).

(91) See Charles Berlitz and William L. Moore, The Roswell Incident (New York: Berkeley Books, 1988); Moore, “The Roswell Incident: New Evidence in the Search for a Crashed UFO,” (Burbank, California: Fair Witness Project, 1982), Publication Number 1201; and Klass, UFOs, pp. 280-281. In 1994 Congressman Steven H. Schiff (R-NM) called for an official study of the Roswell incident. The GAO is conducting a separate investigation of the incident. The CIA is not involved in the investigation. See Klass, UFOs, pp. 279-281; John H. Wright, Information and Privacy Coordinator, letter to Derek Skreen, 20 September 1993; and OSWR analyst interview. See also the made-for-TV film, Roswell, which appeared on cable TV on 31 July 1994 and Peebles, Watch the Skies, pp. 245-251.

(92) See John Diamond, “Air Force Probes 1947 UFO Claim Findings Are Down to Earth,” 9 September 1994, Associated Press release; William J. Broad, “Wreckage of a `Spaceship’: Of This Earth (and U.S.),” The New York Times, 18 September 1994, p. 1; and USAF Col. Richard L. Weaver and 1st Lt. James McAndrew, The Roswell Report, Fact Versus Fiction in New Mexico Desert (Washington, DC: GPO, 1995).

(93) See Good, Above Top Secret; Moore and S. T. Friedman, “Philip Klass and MJ-12: What are the Facts,” (Burbank California: Fair-Witness Project, 1988), Publication Number 1290; Klass, “New Evidence of MJ-12 Hoax,” Skeptical Inquirer, vol. 14 (Winter 1990); and Moore and Jaime H. Shandera, The MJ-12 Documents: An Analytical Report (Burbank, California: Fair-Witness Project, 1990), Publication Number 1500. Walter Bedell Smith supposedly replaced Forrestal on 1 August 1950 following Forrestal’s death. All members listed were deceased when the MJ-12 “documents” surfaced in 1984. See Peebles, Watch the Skies, pp. 258-268.

Dr. Larry Bland, editor of The George C. Marshall Papers, discovered that one of the so-called Majestic-12 documents was a complete fraud. It contained the exact same language as a letter from Marshall to Presidential candidate Thomas Dewey regarding the “Magic” intercepts in 1944. The dates and names had been altered and “Magic” changed to “Majic.” Moreover, it was a photocopy, not an original. No original MJ-12 documents have ever surfaced. Telephone conversation between the author and Bland, 29 August 1994.

 

 

Gerald K. Haines is the National Reconnaissance Office historian.

 

Historical Document

Posted: Apr 14, 2007 04:51 PM
Last Updated: Jun 27, 2008 07:48 AM

“OUR” UFOs?

________________________________________________

By

DarkGovernment

The Lockheed Martin TR-3B

 


A friend said, he would never forget the sight of the alien looking TR-3B based at Papoose. The pitch black, triangular shaped TR-3B was rarely mentioned–and then, only in hushed whispers–at the Groom Lake facility where he worked. The craft had flown over the Groom Lake runway in complete silence and magically stopped above Area S-4. It hovered silently in the same position, for some 10 minutes, before gently settling vertically to the tarmac. At times a corona of silver blue light glowed around the circumference of the massive TR-3B. The operational model is 600 feet across.

 

Okay, admittedly the physics discussed in the video above is just speculation, speculation based on “Known” physics, primarily inside the box.

Could it be something more exotic? of course, something far more refined than mercury vapor at hundreds of thousands of atmospheres of pressure spinning at ridiculous speeds? yes.

Something like harnessing energy from the vacuum, complete localized control of gravity and inertia.

The bigger question is how could they keep this a secret for so long? for some answers and compelling thought on this question see the video below which discusses UFO’s and the national security state, how extensively important the deepest parts of the government consider this technology and the UFO issue to be despite their continued denial of being interested  or having any knowledge at all, all the while having perfected gravity control since 1955 or 56.

NOTE: In 1965 the NSA had Computers with a clock speed of MHz, computer technology of that level was not available commercially until 2000,  35 years later!

NOTE: Some key aspects of Maxwell’s Equations were wrong!

If this is true as it seems to be, a good deal of the physics people use to discredit the possibility of these technologies may be rendered invalid!

See: Analysis of Maxwell’s Equations

The TR-3B is Code named Astra. The tactical reconnaissance TR-3B, first operational flight was in the early 90s.  The -triangular-shaped,  nuclear powered aerospace platform was developed under the Top Secret, Aurora Program with SDI and black budget monies.  At least three of the billion dollar plus TR-3Bs were flying by 1994. The Aurora is the most classified aerospace development program in existence. The TR-3B is the most exotic vehicle created by the Aurora Program. It is funded and operationally tasked by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the NSA, and the CIA. The TR-3B flying triangle is not fiction and was built with technology available in the mid 80s. Not every UFO spotted is one of theirs.

The TR-3B vehicles outer coating is highly reactive to  radar stimulation and can change it’s reflectiveness, absorption coefficient, and color (electro-chromic?). This polymer skin, when used in conjunction with the TR-3B’s electronic Counter Measures and (ECM), can make the vehicle look like a small aircraft, or a flying cylinder, or even trick radar receivers into falsely detecting a variety of aircraft, no aircraft, or several aircraft at various locations.  A circular, plasma filled accelerator ring called the Magnetic Field Disruptor (MFD), surrounds the rotational crew compartment and is far ahead of any imaginable technology.

Sandia and Livermore laboratories developed the reverse engineered MFD technology. The government will go to any lengths to protect this technology. The plasma, mercury based, is pressurized at 250,000 atmospheres at a temperature of 150 degrees Kelvin and accelerated to 50,000 rpm to create a super-conductive plasma with the resulting gravity disruption. The MFD generates a magnetic vortex field, which disrupts or neutralizes the effects of gravity on mass within proximity, by 89 percent. Do not misunderstand. This is not anti-gravity.  Anti-gravity provides a repulsive force that can be used for propulsion. The MFD creates a disruption of the Earth’s gravitational field upon the mass within the circular accelerator. The mass of the circular accelerator and all mass within the accelerator, such as that within the cockpit, avionics, MFD systems, fuels, crew environmental systems, and the nuclear reactor, are reduced by 89%. This causes the effect of making the vehicle extremely light and able to outperform and outmaneuver any craft yet constructed–except, of course, those UFOs we did not build.

The TR-3B is a high-altitude, stealth, reconnaissance platform with an indefinite loiter time. Once you get it up there at speed, it doesn’t take much propulsion to maintain altitude. At Groom Lake there have been whispered rumors of a new element that acts as a catalyst to the plasma. With the vehicle mass reduced by 89%, the craft can travel at Mach 9, vertically or horizontally. My sources say the performance is limited only the stresses that the human pilots can endure. Which is a lot, really, considering along with the 89% reduction in mass, the g-loading forces are also reduced by 89%.

The TR-3Bs propulsion is provided by 3 multi-mode thrusters mounted at each bottom corner of the triangular platform. The TR-3 is a sub-Mach 9 vehicle until it reaches altitudes above 120,000 feet, then god knows how fast it can go!  The 3 multi-mode rocket engines mounted under each corner of the craft use hydrogen or methane and oxygen as a propellant. In a liquid oxygen/hydrogen rocket system, 85% of the propellant mass is oxygen. The nuclear thermal rocket engine uses a hydrogen propellant, augmented with oxygen for additional thrust. The reactor heats the liquid hydrogen and injects liquid oxygen in the supersonic nozzle, so that the hydrogen burns concurrently in the liquid oxygen afterburner. The multi-mode propulsion system can; operate in the atmosphere, with thrust provided by the nuclear reactor, in the upper atmosphere, with hydrogen propulsion, and in orbit, with the combined hydrogen\ oxygen propulsion.

What you have to remember is, that the 3 rocket engines only have to propel 11 percent of the mass of the Top Secret TR-3B. The engines are reportedly built by Rockwell. Many sightings of triangular UFOs are not alien vehicles but the top-secret TR-3B. The NSA, NRO, CIA, and USAF have been playing a shell game with aircraft nomenclature – creating the TR-3, modified to the TR-3A, the TR-3B, and the Teir 2, 3, and 4, with suffixes like “Plus” or “Minus” added on to confuse further the fact that each of these designators is a different aircraft and not the same aerospace vehicle. A TR-3B is as different from a TR-3A as a banana is from a grape. Some of these vehicles are manned and others are unmanned.

Nightmare Alley: The CIA Memo On Marilyn Monroe, JFK & UFOs

The Marilyn Monroe CIA Memo

This is a CIA document that appeared sometime in the early 1990s and has been (unwittingly) authenticated by the CIA itself, in that when Dr. Donald R. Burleson, author of UFOs and the Murder of Marilyn Monroe, filed his appeal of the CIA’s refusal to release transcripts of government wiretaps on Marilyn Monroe’s telephones, the appeal, which was based largely on the 3 August 1962 document in question, was accepted; ultimately no transcripts were released, but the acceptance-of-appeal process did demonstrate that the document is of authentic CIA provenance. The CIA could have denied the authenticity of the document and could thus have turned the appeal down, but they did not. It is contrary to Agency policy to accept any Freedom of Information Act request or appeal based on documents which the CIA does not acknowledge to be authentic; so, tacitly, they acknowledged that the document is genuine.

Not only does the Freedom of Information Act appeal-acceptance show that the “Marilyn memo” is of authentic CIA provenance– it also proves that the transcripts of wiretaps on Marilyn’s phones do exist. When an appeal is accepted and the requester is told that the matter has gone to the CIA’s Agency Release Panel, that means that a debate is under way as to whether to release existing documents, documents in possession of the Agency. It’s nonsense for the CIA to debate with itself over releasing nonexistent documents! The wiretap transcripts undeniably do exist, and given what is now known about Marilyn’s death, they must be extraordinarily revealing.

The 3 August 1962 CIA document, written only a day before Marilyn Monroe’s death, reveals that some high government officials were in a state of extreme anxiety over the fact that the Kennedy brothers (Jack and Bobby) had been imparting sensitive information to Marilyn, and that she was writing a lot of it down in her little red “diary of secrets.” Of special interest is the CIA document’s mention of the fact that one of the secrets everyone was afraid Marilyn might have written down had to do with “the visit by the President at a secret air base for the purpose of inspecting things from outer space.” The obvious inference is that JFK had told Marilyn about the Roswell UFO crash and the retrieval, in 1947, of debris and alien bodies. (John Kennedy was notorious for having a difficult time separating his hormonal life from his political career. It got him into trouble more than once. Marilyn wasn’t the first such instance, nor the last.)

When the Kennedys started distancing themselves from Marilyn, she grew angry and (mentioning it on the telephone, unfortunately) started planning to hold a news conference and “tell all.” According to the hypothesis set forth in Dr. Burleson’s book, Attorney General Robert Kennedy then became so fearful that “tell all” meant telling the big secret– the government retrieval and coverup of UFO crash debris and bodies– that he simply could not afford to let her live long enough to hold such a press conference as she was threatening to hold. Dr. Burleson’s book explores the likelihood that had Marilyn indeed told the world the “secret of secrets,” the President would have been indicted for disclosing highly classified information to an unauthorized recipient, an offense quite possibly to be construed as treason. The Kennedys couldn’t risk the potential political disaster, and Marilyn became the victim of their fears.

For easier reference, here is a transcription of the text of the CIA document:

Wiretape of telephone conversation between reporter Dorothy Kilgallen and her close friend, Howard Rothberg (A); from wiretap of telephone conversation of Marilyn Monroe and Attorney General Robert Kennedy (B). Appraisal of Content: [A portion redacted.]

1. Rothberg discussed the apparent comeback of subject with Kilgallen and the break up with the Kennedys. Rothberg told Kilgallen that she was attending Hollywood parties hosted by the “inner circle” among Hollywood’s elite and was becoming the talk of the town again. Rothberg indicated in so many words, that she had secrets to tell, no doubt arising from her trists [sic] with the President and the Attorney General. One such “secret” mentions the visit by the President at a secret air base for the purpose of inspecting things from outer space. Kilgallen replied that she knew what might be the source of visit. In the mid-fifties Kilgallen learned of secret effort by US and UK governments to identify the origins of crashed spacecraft and dead bodies, from a British government official. Kilgallen believed the story may have come from the New Mexico story in the late forties. Kilgallen said that if the story is true, it would cause terrible embarrassment for Jack and his plans to have NASA put men on the moon.

2. Subject repeatedly called the Attorney General and complained about the way she was being ignored by the President and his brother.

3. Subject threatened to hold a press conference and would tell all.

4. Subject made reference to “bases” in Cuba and knew of the President’s plan to kill Castro.

5. Subject made reference to her “diary of secrets” and what the newspapers would do with such disclosures.

[An indented block of text is redacted near the bottom of the page, and the document is signed JAMES ANGLETON, who at the time was the Chief of Counterintelligence for the CIA.]

The UFO connection becomes all the more compelling with the discovery, described in Burleson’s UFOs and the Murder of Marilyn Monroe, of an imprint to the left of the “TOP SECRET” stamp near the top of the document; the imprint, when Burleson enhanced it by computer imaging techniques, turns out to contain the name of Brigadier General George Shulgen, who was formerly the chief UFO investigation-coordinator for the U.S. Air Force. (The imprint also refers to General Schulgen’s Intelligence Collection Memorandum, a document known to have existed.) This imprint or “bleed-in,” however it came to be on a CIA document about Marilyn Monroe, makes a clear connection between her murder and the question of UFO secrecy, as someone, somewhere at some time, evidently thought it logical to archive the documents together. When all the evidence is considered, the case becomes very strong that government people murdered Marilyn because of what she knew about the UFO coverup.

 


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JFK, Marilyn Monroe & UFOs: A Deadly Cocktail?

Exopolitics (The Greyada Treaty?)

Exopolitics: political implications of the extra-terrestrial presence
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Eisenhower’s 1954 Meeting With Extraterrestrials:
The Fiftieth Anniversary of First Contact?

Research Study #8

Revised Febuary 12, 2004, first published January 28, 2004,

Exopolitics Article Archives

© Michael E. Salla, PhD


ABSTRACT

On the night and early hours of February 20-21, 1954, while on a ‘vacation’ to Palm Springs, California, President Dwight Eisenhower went missing and allegedly was taken to Edwards Air force base for a secret meeting. When he showed up the next morning at a church service in Los Angeles, reporters were told that he had to have emergency dental treatment the previous evening and had visited a local dentist. The dentist later appeared at a function that evening and presented as the ‘dentist’ who had treated Eisenhower. The missing night and morning has subsequently fueled rumors that Eisenhower was using the alleged dentist visit as a cover story for an extraordinary event. The event is possibly the most significant that any American President could have conducted: an alleged ‘First Contact’ meeting with extraterrestrials at Edwards Air Force base (previously Muroc Airfield), and the beginning of a series of meetings with different extraterrestrial races that led to a ‘treaty’ that was eventually signed. This astonishing First Contact event, if it occurred, will experience its 50th anniversary on February 20-21, 2004.
This paper explores the evidence that the First Contact meeting had occurred with extraterrestrials with a distinctive ‘Nordic’ appearance, the likelihood of an agreement having been spurned with this ‘Nordic race’, the start of a series of meetings that led to a treaty eventually being signed with a different extraterrestrial race dubbed the ‘Greys’, and the motivations of the different extraterrestrial races involved in these treaty discussions. The paper will further examine why these events were kept secret for so long, the significance of the 50th anniversary of Eisenhower’s meeting with extraterrestrials, and whether an official disclosure announcement is likely in the near future.

About the Author

Dr. Michael E. Salla has held academic appointments in the School of International Service, American University, Washington DC (1996-2001), and the Department of Political Science, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia (1994-96). He taught as an adjunct faculty member at George Washington University, Washington DC., in 2002. He is currently researching methods of Transformational Peace as a Researcher in Residence in the Center for Global Peace (2001-2004) and directing the Center’s Peace Ambassador Program which uses transformational peace techniques for individual self-empowerment. He has a PhD in Government from the University of Queensland, Australia, and an MA in Philosophy from the University of Melbourne, Australia. He is the author of Exopolitics: Political Implications of the Extraterrestrial Presence (Dandelion Books, 2004); and The Hero’s Journey Toward a Second American Century (Greenwood Press, 2002) and co-editor/author of three other books, and authored more than seventy articles, chapters, and book reviews on peace, ethnic conflict and conflict resolution. He has conducted research and fieldwork in the ethnic conflicts in East Timor, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Sri Lanka. He has organized a number of international workshops involving mid to high level participants from these conflicts. He has an academic website at http://www.american.edu/salla/ and is the founder of the website: http://www.exopolitics.org


Eisenhower’s 1954 Meeting With Extraterrestrials: The Fiftieth Anniversary of First Contact?
 
 
 
Introduction [1]
On the night and early hours of February 20-21, 1954, while on a ‘vacation’ to Palm Springs, California, President Dwight Eisenhower went missing and allegedly was taken to Edwards Air force base for a secret meeting. When he showed up the next morning at a church service in Los Angeles, reporters were told that he had to have emergency dental treatment the previous evening and had visited a local dentist. The dentist later appeared at a function that evening and presented as the ‘dentist’ who had treated Eisenhower. The missing night and morning has subsequently fueled rumors that Eisenhower was using the alleged dentist visit as a cover story for an extraordinary event. The event is possibly the most significant that any American President could have conducted: an alleged ‘First Contact’ meeting with extraterrestrials at Edwards Air Force base (previously Muroc Airfield), and the beginning of a series of meetings with different extraterrestrial races that led to a ‘treaty’ that was eventually signed. This astonishing First Contact event, if it occurred, will experience its 50th anniversary on February 20-21, 2004.
This paper explores the evidence that the First Contact meeting had occurred with extraterrestrials with a distinctive ‘Nordic’ appearance, the likelihood of an agreement having been spurned with this ‘Nordic race’, the start of a series of meetings that led to a treaty eventually being signed with a different extraterrestrial race dubbed the ‘Greys’, and the motivations of the different extraterrestrial races involved in these treaty discussions. The paper will further examine why these events were kept secret for so long, the significance of the 50th anniversary of Eisenhower’s meeting with extraterrestrials, and whether an official disclosure announcement is likely in the near future.

Circumstantial Evidence Supporting Eisenhower’s ‘First Contact’ Meeting with Extraterrestrials

There is circumstantial and testimonial evidence supporting Eisenhower’s meeting with extraterrestrials and the start of a series of meetings that culminated in the signing of a treaty with a different group of extraterrestrials. The most intriguing are circumstances surrounding Eisenhower’s alleged winter vacation to Palm Springs, California from February 17-24, 1954. Firstly, the ”vacation for the President” which was announced rather suddenly and came less than a week after Eisenhower’s ‘quail shooting’ vacation in Georgia. According to UFO researcher, William Moore, all this was quite unusual and suggested that there was more to the one week visit to Palm Springs than a simple holiday. [2]
Second, on the Saturday night of February 20, President Eisenhower did go missing fueling press speculation that he had taken ill or even died. In a hastily convened press conference, Eisenhower’s Press Secretary announced that Eisenhower had lost a tooth cap while eating fried chicken and had to be rushed to a local dentist. The local dentist was introduced at an official function on Sunday February 21, as “the dentist who had treated the president”. [3] Moore’s investigation of the incident concluded that the dentist’s visit was being used as a cover story for Eisenhower’s true whereabouts.
Consequently, Eisenhower was missing for an entire evening and could easily have been taken from Palm Springs to the nearby Muroc Airfield, later renamed Edwards Air Force base. The unscheduled nature of the President’s vacation, the missing President and the dentist cover story provide circumstantial evidence that the true purpose of his Palm Springs vacation was for him to attend an event whose importance was such that it could not be disclosed to the general public. A meeting with extraterrestrials may well have been the true purpose of his visit.
Gerald Light’s Letter That Eisenhower Met With Extraterrestrials

The first public source alleging a meeting with extraterrestrials was Gerald Light who in a letter dated April 16, 1954 to Meade Layne, the then director of Borderland Sciences Research Associates (now Foundation), claimed he was part of a delegation of community leaders to an alleged meeting with extraterrestrials at Edwards Air Force Base. In a subsequent article, Meade Layne described Light as a “gifted and highly educated writer and lecturer”, who was skilled both in clairvoyance and the occult. [4] Light was a well-known metaphysical community leader in the Southern California area. The alleged purpose of him and others on the delegation was to test public reaction to the presence of extraterrestrials. Light described the circumstances of the meeting as follows:

‘My dear friends: I have just returned from Muroc [Edwards Air Force Base]. The report is true — devastatingly true! I made the journey in company with Franklin Allen of the Hearst papers and Edwin Nourse of Brookings Institute (Truman’s erstwhile financial advisor) and Bishop MacIntyre of L.A. (confidential names for the present, please). When we were allowed to enter the restricted section (after about six hours in which we were checked on every possible item, event, incident and aspect of our personal and public lives), I had the distinct feeling that the world had come to an end with fantastic realism. For I have never seen so many human beings in a state of complete collapse and confusion, as they realized that their own world had indeed ended with such finality as to beggar description. The reality of the ‘other plane’ aeroforms is now and forever removed from the realms of speculation and made a rather painful part of the consciousness of every responsible scientific and political group. During my two days’ visit I saw five separate and distinct types of aircraft being studied and handled by our Air Force officials — with the assistance and permission of the Etherians! I have no words to express my reactions. It has finally happened. It is now a matter of history. President Eisenhower, as you may already know, was spirited over to Muroc one night during his visit to Palm Springs recently. And it is my conviction that he will ignore the terrific conflict between the various ‘authorities’ and go directly to the people via radio and television — if the impasse continues much longer. From what I could gather, an official statement to the country is being prepared for delivery about the middle of May. [5]
Of course no such formal announcement was made, and Light’s supposed meeting has either been the best-kept secret of the twentieth century or the fabrication of an elderly mystic known for out of body experiences. The events Light describes in his meeting in terms of the panic and confusion of many of those present, the emotional impact of the alleged landing, and the tremendous difference of opinion on what to do in terms of telling the public and responding to the extraterrestrial visitors, are plausible descriptions of what may have occurred. Indeed, the psychological and emotional impact Light describes for senior national security leaders at the meeting is consistent with what could be expected for such a ‘life changing event’. A further way of determining Light’s claim is to investigate the figures he named along with himself as part of the community delegation, and whether they could have been plausible candidates for such a meeting.
Dr Edwin Nourse (1883-1974) was the first chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors to the President (1944-1953) and was President Truman’s chief economic advisor. [6] Nourse officially retired to private life in 1953 and would certainly have been a good choice of someone who could give confidential economic advise to the Eisenhower administration. If Dr Nourse was present at such a meeting, he did so in order to provide his expertise on the possible economic impact of First Contact with extraterrestrials. Another of the individuals mentioned by Light was Bishop MacIntyre.
Cardinal James Francis MacIntyre was the bishop and head of the Catholic Church in Los Angeles (1948-1970) and would have been an important gauge for the possible reaction from religious leaders generally, and in particular from the most influential and powerful religious institution on the planet – the Roman Catholic Church. In particular, Cardinal MacIntyre would have been a good choice as a representative for the Vatican since he was appointed the first Cardinal of the Western United States by Pope Pius XII in 1952. All Cardinal MacIntyre’s correspondence is closed to researchers thus making it impossible to confirm what impact the visit to Muroc had on him and what he communicated to other church leaders and the Vatican. [7] Cardinal MacIntyre had sufficient rank and authority to represent the Catholic Church and the religious community in a delegation of community leaders.
The fourth member of the delegation of community leaders was Franklin Winthrop Allen, a former reporter with the Hearst Newspapers Group. [8]   Allen was 80 years old at the time, author of a book instructing reporters on how to deal with Congressional Committee Hearings, and would have been a good choice for a member of the press who could maintain confidentiality.
The four represented senior leaders of the religious, spiritual, economic and newspaper communities and were well advanced in age and status. They would certainly have been plausible choices for a community delegation that could provide confidential advise on a possible public response to a First Contact event involving extraterrestrial races. Such a selection would have constituted a ‘wise men’ group that would have been entirely in character for the conservative nature of American society in 1954. While Light may well contrived such a list in a fabricated account or ‘out of body’ experience as Moore implies in his analysis, there is nothing in Light’s selection that eliminates the possibility that they were plausible members of such a delegation. [9] At face value then, the selection of such a ‘wise men’ group gives some credence to Light’s claim.
It may be concluded then that following items all make up circumstantial evidence that a meeting with extraterrestrials occurred. The first is Eisenhower’s missing night. The second is the weak ‘cover story’ used for Eisenhower’s absence. The third is Light’s description of actual events at the meeting in terms of the psychological and emotional impact of the described meeting which is consistent with what could be anticipated. The final is Light’s description of the composition of community leaders or ‘wise men’ at the meeting. These four items collectively provide circumstantial evidence that a meeting with extraterrestrials occurred and that Eisenhower was present.

Testimonies Supporting Eisenhower’s Meeting With Extraterrestrials

There are a number of other sources alleging an extraterrestrial meeting at Edwards Air force base that corresponded to a formal First Contact event. These sources are based on testimonies of ‘whistleblowers’ that witnessed documents or learned from their ‘insider contacts’ of such a meeting. These testimonies describe what appears to be two separate sets of meetings involving different extraterrestrial groups who met either with President Eisenhower and/or with Eisenhower administration officials over a short period of time. The first of these meetings, the actual ‘First Contact’ event, did not lead to an agreement and the extraterrestrials were effectively spurned. The second of these meetings did lead to an agreement, and this has been apparently become the basis of subsequent secret interactions with extraterrestrial races involved in the ‘treaty’ that was signed. There is some discrepancy in the sequence of meetings and where they were held, but all agree that a ‘First Contact’ meeting involving President Eisenhower did occur, and that one of these meetings occurred with his February 1954 visit to Edwards Air force base.
The first version of Eisenhower’s meeting is described by one of the most ‘controversial’ whistleblowers to ever have come forward into the public arena to describe an extraterrestrial presence. William Cooper served on the Naval Intelligence briefing team for the Commander of the Pacific Fleet between 1970-73, and had access to classified documents that he had to review in order to fulfill his briefing duties. He describes the background and nature of the ‘First contact’ with extraterrestrials as follows:
In 1953 Astronomers discovered large objects in space which were moving toward the Earth. It was first believed that they were asteroids. Later evidence proved that the objects could only be Spaceships. Project Sigma intercepted alien radio communications. When the objects reached the Earth they took up a very high orbit around the Equator. There were several huge ships, and their actual intent was unknown. Project Sigma, and a new project, Plato, through radio communications using the computer binary language, was able to arrange a landing that resulted in face to face contact with alien beings from another planet. Project Plato was tasked with establishing diplomatic relations with this race of space aliens. In the meantime a race of human looking aliens contacted the U.S. Government. This alien group warned us against the aliens that were orbiting the Equator and offered to help us with our spiritual development. They demanded that we dismantle and destroy our nuclear weapons as the major condition. They refused to exchange technology citing that we were spiritually unable to handle the technology which we then possessed. They believed that we would use any new technology to destroy each other. This race stated that we were on a path of self destruction and we must stop killing each other, stop polluting the Earth, stop raping the Earth’s natural resources, and learn to live in harmony. These terms were met with extreme suspicion, especially the major condition of nuclear disarmament. It was believed that meeting that condition would leave us helpless in the face of an obvious alien threat. We also had nothing in history to help with the decision. Nuclear disarmament was not considered to be within the best interest of the United States. The overtures were rejected. [10]
The significant point about Cooper’s version is that the humanoid extraterrestrial race was not willing to enter into technology exchanges that might help weapons development, and instead was focused on spiritual development. Significantly, the overtures of these extraterrestrials were turned down.
Confirmation that the First Contact meeting involved extraterrestrials who were effectively spurned for taking what might be considered a principled stand on technology assistance and nuclear weapons comes from the son of a former Navy Commander who claimed that his father had been present at the First Contact event on February 20-21, 1954. According to Charles L. Suggs, a retired Sgt from the US Marine Corps, his father Charles L. Suggs, (1909-1987) was a former Commander with the US Navy who attended the meeting at Edwards Air force base with Eisenhower. [11] Sgt Suggs recounted his father’s experiences from the meeting in a 1991 interview with a prominent UFO researcher:
Charlie’s father, Navy Commander Charles Suggs accompanied Pres. Ike along with others on Feb. 20th.  They met and spoke with 2 white-haired Nordics that had pale blue eyes and colorless lips.  The spokesman stood a number of feet away from Ike and would not let him approach any closer.  A second nordic stood on the extended ramp of a bi-convex saucer that stood on tripod landing gear on the landing strip.  According to Charlie, there were B-58 Hustlers on the field even though the first one did not fly officially till 1956.  These visitors said they came from another solar system.  They posed detailed questions about our
nuclear testing. [12]
Another ‘whistleblower’ who confirms that First Contact involved an extraterrestrial race being spurned for their principled stand on technology transfer is the son of the famous creator of the Lear Jet, William Lear. John Lear is a former Lockheed L-1011 Captain who flew over 150 test aircraft and held 18 world speed records, and during the late 1960’s, 1970’s and early 1980’s was a contract pilot for the CIA. Lear developed a close relationship with CIA Director (DCI) William Colby who was in charge of covert operations in Vietnam before becoming DCI. According to Lear there had indeed been a warning from another race prior to an agreement being eventually signed, and he claimed they visited Muroc/Edward and the following occurred:
In 1954, President Eisenhower met with a representative of another alien species at Muroc Test Center, which is now called Edwards Airforce Base. This alien suggested that they could help us get rid of the Greys but Eisenhower turned down their offer because they offered no technology. [13]
Cooper’s and Lear’s idea of more than one extraterrestrial race interacting with the Eisenhower administration is supported by other whistleblowers such as former Master Sergeant Robert Dean who like Cooper, had access to top secret documents while working in the intelligence division for the Supreme Commander of a major US military command. In Dean’s 27 year distinguished military career, he served at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe where he witnessed these documents while serving under the Supreme Allied Commander of Europe. Dean claimed:
The group at the time, there were just four that they knew of for certain and the Greys were one of those groups. There was a group that looked exactly like we do. There was a human group that looked so much like us that that really drove the admirals and the generals crazy because they determined that these people, and they had seen them repeatedly, they had had contact with them, there had been abductions, there had been contacts… Two other groups, there was a very large group, I say large, they were 6-8 maybe sometimes 9 feet tall and they were humanoid, but they were very pale, very white, didn’t have any hair on their bodies at all. And then there was another group that had sort of a reptilian quality to them. We had encountered them, military people and police officers all over the world have run into these guys. They had vertical pupils in their eyes and their skin seemed to have a quality very much like what you find on the stomach of a lizard. So those were the four they knew of in 1964. [14]
There is some discrepancy in the testimonials as to which Air force base the spurned extraterrestrials met with President Eisenhower and/or Eisenhower administration officials. Cooper claims this occurred at Homestead Air force base in Florida, and not Edwards. [15] On the other hand Lear and Suggs suggest it occurred at Edwards. In his letter, Gerald Light pointed to intense disagreement amongst Eisenhower officials in responding to the extraterrestrials at the Edwards AFB meeting. Such intense disagreement may predictably have occurred if national security officials were responding to an extraterrestrial request to abandon the pursuit of weapons technologies. Given the intensity of the Cold War, the national security officials present may well have decided it was more prudent to seek better terms before agreeing to the extraterrestrials request. Light’s testimony implies that the meeting at Edwards did not result in an agreement, but instead resulted in intense disagreement between Eishenhower officials. Consequently, I will conclude that the Lear and Suggs version is more accurate, and that the ‘First Contact’ meeting occurred at Edwards Air force base in February 20-21, 1954.

 

The Subsequent 1954 Agreement with Extraterrestrials

According to the testimonies examined so far, the February 20-21, 1954 meeting was not successful, and the extraterrestrials were spurned due to their refusal to enter into technology exchanges and insistence on nuclear disarmament by the US and presumably other major world powers. Cooper describes the circumstances of a subsequent agreement that was reached after the failure of the first meeting.  While Cooper has a different version of dates and times for the 1954 meetings, he agrees that there were two sets of meetings involving different extraterrestrials meeting with President Eisenhower and/or Eisenhower administration officials. [16]
Later in 1954 the race of large nosed Gray Aliens which had been orbiting the Earth landed at Holloman Air Force Base. A basic agreement was reached. This race identified themselves as originating from a Planet around a red star in the Constellation of Orion which we called Betelgeuse. They stated that their planet was dying and that at some unknown future time they would no longer be able to survive there. [17]
The meeting at Holloman Air force base in New Mexico has reportedly been the site of subsequent extraterrestrial meetings with the same extraterrestrials who it will be shown signed the 1954 treaty. In 1972-73, for example, the producers Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler, had allegedly been offered and witnessed actual Air force film footage of a meeting involving Grey extraterrestrials that occurred at Holloman Air force base in 1971. [18] Cooper explained the terms of the 1954 treaty reached with the Grey extraterrestrials as follows:
The treaty stated that the aliens would not interfere in our affairs and we would not interfere in theirs. We would keep their presence on earth a secret. They would furnish us with advanced technology and would help us in our technological development. They would not make any treaty with any other Earth nation. They could abduct humans on a limited and periodic basis for the purpose of medical examination and monitoring of our development, with the stipulation that the humans would not be harmed, would be returned to their point of abduction, would have no memory of the event, and that the alien nation would furnish Majesty Twelve with a list of all human contacts and abductees on a regularly scheduled basis. [19]
Another whistleblower source for a treaty having been signed is Phil Schneider, a former geological engineer that was employed by corporations contracted to build underground bases worked extensively on black projects involving extraterrestrials. He revealed his own knowledge of the treaty in the following:
Back in 1954, under the Eisenhower administration, the federal government decided to circumvent the Constitution of the United States and form a treaty with alien entities. It was called the 1954 Greada Treaty, which basically made the agreement that the aliens involved could take a few cows and test their implanting techniques on a few human beings, but that they had to give details about the people involved. [20]
Schneider’s knowledge of the treaty would have come from his familiarity with a range of compartmentalized black projects and interaction with other personnel working with extraterrestrials. Yet another whistleblower source for an agreement being signed is Dr Michael Wolf, who claims to have served on various policy-making committees responsible for extraterrestrial affairs for twenty five years. [21] He claims that the Eisenhower administration entered into the treaty with an extraterrestrial race and that this treaty was never ratified as constitutionally required. [22]
Significantly, a number of whistleblowers argue that the treaty that was signed involved some compulsion on the part of the extraterrestrials. Don Phillips is a former Air force serviceman and employee on clandestine aviation projects who testified having seen documents describing the meeting between President Eisenhower and extraterrestrials, and the background to a subsequent agreement:
We have records from 1954 that were meetings between our own leaders of this country and ET’s here in California. And, as I understand it from the written documentation, we were asked if we would allow them to be here and do research. I have read that our reply was well, how can we stop you? You are so advanced. And I will say by this camera and this sound, that it was President Eisenhower that had this meeting. [23]
Col Phillip Corso, a highly decorated officer that served in Eisenhower’s National Security Council alluded to a treaty signed by the Eisenhower administration with extraterrestrials in his memoirs. He wrote: “We had negotiated a kind of surrender with them [extraterrestrials] as long as we couldn’t fight them. They dictated the terms because they knew what we most feared was disclosure.” [24]   Corso’s claim of a ‘negotiated surrender’ suggests that some sort of agreement or ‘treaty’ was reached which he was not happy with.

What Do We Know of the Grey Extraterrestrials that signed the Treaty?

According to Cooper, the Grey extraterrestrials signing the treaty were not trustworthy:
By 1955 it became obvious that the aliens had deceived Eisenhower and had broken the treaty…. It was suspected that the aliens were not submitting a complete list of human contacts and abductees to the Majesty Twelve and it was suspected that not all abductees had been returned. [25]
Similarly, Lear argued that the Grey extraterrestrials quickly broke the treaty and could not be trusted:
… a deal was struck that in exchange for advanced technology from the aliens we would allow them to abduct a very small number of persons and we would periodically be given a list of those persons abducted. We got something less than the technology we bargained for and found the abductions exceeded by a million fold than what we had naively agreed to. [26]
Other whistleblowers also suggested that the extraterrestrials who signed the Treaty with Eisenhower couldn’t be trusted. Schneider claimed that despite the treaty’s provisions on the number of humans who would be ‘abducted’ for experiments, “the aliens altered the bargain until they decided they wouldn’t abide by it at all.” [27]
As mentioned earlier, Col Phillip Corso similarly believed that the extraterrestrials that the Eisenhower administration entered into agreements with couldn’t be trusted. Corso believed these forced a ‘negotiated surrender’ suggesting an extraterrestrial agenda that was suspect. While General Douglas Macarthur didn’t directly mention any government treaty with extraterrestrials, he gave a famous warning in October 1955 suggesting that some extraterrestrial presence existed that threatened human sovereignty:
You now face a new world, a world of change. We speak in strange terms, of harnessing the cosmic energy, of ultimate conflict between a united human race and the sinister forces of some other planetary galaxy.” “The nations of the world will have to unite, for the next war will be an interplanetary war. The nations of the earth must someday make a common front against attack by people from other planets. [28]
Macarthur may well have been alluding to the same extraterrestrials that Corso, Cooper and Lear believed had entered into an agreement with the Eisenhower administration.
Significantly, reports of contacts with extraterrestrials began to change once the alleged treaty began to be implemented. The friendly ‘space brothers’ reports involving contactees of the 1950s changed as reports of abductions began to emerge after the first recorded case in 1961 involving Barney and Betty Hill:
Another apparent pattern that has occurred in Ufology is the dominance of the space brothers in the 1950’s who were kind, interacted with people who became known as contactees, and took people for rides in their space crafts.  This pattern changed dramatically with the abduction of Betty and Barney Hill in the early 1960’s. The space brother human types of the 1950’s seemed to fade away, and they were replaced in the UFO literature with another type of alien.  In the early sixties the first abduction of the Hills began a new pattern where the aliens were grey “evil” aliens who would abduct people against their will, and perform medical procedures on them. There were, as far as this author is aware no confirmed cases of “classic” abductions in the 1950’s. Unlike the “good” space brothers of the 1950’s these grey aliens were described by all, who were unfortunate enough to have met with them, as being distant and without emotions. [29]
According to Wolf, the extraterrestrials were Greys from the fourth planet of the star system Zeta Reticulum, while Cooper claims they were tall Greys from Betelgeuse, Orion. Wolf’s and Cooper’s differing versions likely reflect a close relationship between Greys from Rigel and Betelguese, and that more than one species of extraterrestrials may have been covered in the treaty. Wolf has described the Greys as having positive motivations in regard to their presence on Earth, but have been inhibited and targeted by rogue elements in the US military. [30] Similarly, Robert Dean believes that the extraterrestrials visiting Earth are friendly. [31] This contrasts with the testimonies of Cooper, Lear, Schneider, Corso and arguably even Macarthur over the true motivations of the Greys. It is worth repeating Gerald Light’s claim of a “terrific conflict between the various ‘authorities’” on whether to inform the general public or not. It is likely that these differing perspectives on the motivations of the Greys reflected an uncertainty that has continued to intensely divide policy makers up to the present on how to best respond to the extraterrestrial presence and what to tell the general public. [32]
Maintaining Secrecy and Witness Credibility
The uncertainty over the motivations and behavior of the Grey extraterrestrials appears to have played a large role in the government decision not to disclose the extraterrestrial presence and the treaty Eisenhower signed with them. The following passage from an ‘alleged official document’ leaked to UFO researchers describes the official secrecy policy adopted in April 1954, two months after Eisenhower had ‘First Contact’ with extraterrestrials who were spurned by the Eisenhower administration:
Any encounter with entities known to be of extraterrestrial origin is to be considered to be a matter of national security and therefore classified TOP SECRET. Under no circumstances is the general public or the public press to learn of the existence of these entities. The official government policy is that such creatures do not exist, and that no agency of the federal government is now engaged in any study of extraterrestrials or their artifacts. Any deviation from this stated policy is absolutely forbidden. [33]
Penalties for disclosing classified information concerning extraterrestrials are quite severe. In December 1953, the Joint Chiefs of Staff issued Army-Navy-Air Force publication 146 that made the unauthorized release of information concerning UFOs a crime under the Espionage Act, punishable by up to 10 years in prison and a $10,000 fine. [34] According to Robert Dean, this draconian penalty is what prevents most former military servicemen from coming forward to disclose information. [35]
The strategies for dealing with those former servicemen, corporate employees or witnesses brave or ‘foolish’ enough to come forward to reveal classified information is to intimidate, silence, eliminate or discredit these individuals. This policy involves such strategies as removing all public records of former military service men or corporate employees, forcing individuals to make retractions, deliberately distorting statements of individuals, or discrediting individuals. Bob Lazar, for example, claimed to be a former physicist employed with reverse engineering extraterrestrial craft. He described the disappearance of all his university and public records indicating how military-intelligence agencies actively discredit whistleblowers. [36]
In the cases of the witnesses cited so far, Cooper, Schneider, Lear, Wolf, all have been subjected to some or all of these strategies thereby making it difficult to reach firm conclusions about their testimonies. Since the creation of controversy, uncertainty, and confusion is the modus operandi of military-intelligence agencies in maintaining secrecy of the extraterrestrial presence, then the testimonies of former officials/employees/witnesses need to be considered on their merits. While issues of credibility, credentials, disinformation are important in the study of the extraterrestrial presence, a rigorous methodology for dealing with the efforts of military-intelligence agencies to discredit, intimidate or create controversy around particular witnesses, has yet to be developed. For example, numerous efforts to discredit Cooper in particular by referring to inconsistencies in his statements, retractions, egregious behavior and stated positions, may be due in part or in whole to the policy of military-intelligence officials to discredit and/or intimidate Cooper from leaking classified information that he may very well have witnessed in his official capacities.  Since Cooper’s military record does indicate he did serve in an official capacity on the briefing team of the Commander of the Pacific Fleet, it is most likely that much of his testimony is credible. Whatever inaccuracies exist in terms of his recollections of the timing of meetings between the Eisenhower administration and extraterrestrials may either have been due to memory lapses or perhaps deliberately introduced as a self-protective mechanism. It has been pointed out by some ‘whistleblowers’ that making retractions or sowing inaccuracies in testimonies is sometimes essential in disseminating information without being physically harmed. [37] The controversial Cooper had been subjected to undoubtedly the longest and most intense military-intelligence efforts to discredit or intimidate any whistleblower revealing classified information.
The non-disclosure policy developed for the extraterrestrial presence is most likely due to a profound policy dilemma on the part of responsible national security officials.  This dilemma comes from uncertainty over what the true benefits of the purported 1954 treaty were, and what the consequences of the treaty would be. While the signing of the treaty provided US national security agencies an opportunity to study extraterrestrial technologies, and to observe the extraterrestrial biological program with abducted civilians, it appeared the treaty was not as beneficial as was first thought due to excessive abductions of US civilians.
The subsequent behavior of the Greys in their interactions with US national security agencies was the most likely reason for deferring a decision to release news of the treaty and the extraterrestrial presence to the global public. According to Lights’ testimony, Eisenhower had indicated to those present on February 20-21, 1954, that an announcement would be made soon after the First Contact event. Since this didn’t occur, and a treaty was eventually signed with a different group of extraterrestrials, the Greys, this suggested that the national security agencies were deeply divided over the wisdom of disclosing this information, and alarmed by the possible public reaction to the Grey activities.
At his farewell speech in 1961, President Eisenhower was possibly alluding to the growing power of national security agencies that dealt with the extraterrestrial presence and were gaining great power as a result of the dilemma over what to do with the extraterrestrial presence:
In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.
If the President was dissatisfied with the non-disclosure of the extraterrestrial presence, then his speech was indicating that the responsible national security agencies were both dominating public policy and taking a ‘hard-line approach’ that was inconsistent with American democratic ideals.
In the subsequent decades, it appears that on a number of occasions, official disclosure was seriously contemplated. For example, Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler claimed they were approached by the Pentagon in 1972 to produce an officially sanctioned video that would be used for official public disclosure of the extraterrestrial presence. When the offer was later withdrawn, the reason given was that the time was no longer suitable due to the Watergate Scandal. While it is undoubtedly true that political factors would impact on making a formal disclosure announcement, it is more likely the case that non-disclosure was caused by lack of clarity over what the true motivations of the extraterrestrials were, and the impact an announcement would have on extraterrestrial activities. Making any announcement of the extraterrestrial presence would naturally have lead to questions concerning the extraterrestrials’ motivations and activities. If officials couldn’t agree on appropriate answers, they most likely decided that it was better to defer disclosure rather than threaten national security by making inaccurate announcements.

The precise nature of the extraterrestrial abductions and the medical programs implemented by the Greys has been extensively researched and discussed by a number of UFO researchers. Their conclusions vary widely suggesting that the deep disagreement among private UFO researchers over the motivations and activities of the Greys, very likely mirrors that of official government sources. [38] As long as such uncertainty continues, it appears that disclosure may continue to be deferred until key global events no longer makes the non-disclosure policy viable.

 

Conclusion

An examination of the evidence presented in this paper in terms of whistleblower or witness testimonies raises tremendous problems in terms of coming to a conclusive opinion over: first, the truth of the alleged ‘First Contact’ meeting between Eisenhower and extraterrestrials; second, claims of more than one set of extraterrestrials meeting with the Eisenhower administration; and third, the various policy issues that arise from the meetings and subsequent treaty that was allegedly signed. Most perplexing is how to view the testimonies of whistleblowers who appear sincere, positively motivated and have plausible stories, yet are plagued by controversy, allegations of fraud, inconsistency and other irregularities. Due to the official secrecy policy adopted towards the extraterrestrial presence, it may be concluded that some if not most of the controversy surrounding these individuals has been caused by military-intelligence agencies intent on discrediting whistleblower or witness testimonies.
While there continues to be uncertainty caused by the controversy surrounding whistleblower testimonies and the role of military-intelligence agencies in generating this controversy, the bulk of evidence points to a ‘First Contact’ meeting having occurred during Eisenhower’s Palm Spring vacation on February 20-21, 1954. The testimonies suggest that the extraterrestrials in the First Contact event, a race of tall ‘Nordic’ extraterrestrials were spurned due to their reluctance to provide advanced technology in an agreement. A subsequent meeting and treaty was then signed with a different set of extraterrestrials, commonly called Greys, who did not have the same reluctance in exchanging extraterrestrial technology as part of an agreement.
Most of the available evidence that has found its way into the public arena suggests that the extraterrestrial race with whom the treaty was signed, the Greys, are at best an enigma and at worst simply untrustworthy in their treatment of abducted civilians. The subsequent shift in witness reports from friendly extraterrestrial ‘contacts’ to disturbing ‘abductions’, suggest that the Eisenhower administration had signed a treaty with extraterrestrials whose motivations and activities are an enigma as far as the general public interest is concerned. The activities of the Grey extraterrestrials apparently continues to raise uncertainty for US national security agencies in terms of an appropriate strategic response. [39]   On the contrary, the friendly Nordic ‘space brothers’ faded from the scene since the Eisenhower administration saw them as not sufficiently motivated to serve the technological and strategic goals of US national security agencies.
The question of when disclosure of the treaty signed by Eisenhower and of the extraterrestrial presence might occur is one that has long been anticipated. A recent economic event might be a signal that some form of disclosure is possible in the near future. According to Craig Copetas, Bloomberg News correspondent in Paris, the World Economic Forum at Davos Switzerland from January 21-25, 2004, discussed extraterrestrials at one or more closed sessions. In a story published on January 21, Copetas claimed that “forum officials maintain their five-day program on Partnering for Security and Prosperity requires an unambiguous examination of extraterrestrial presence on Earth.” [40] The Davos Forum is a gauge for trends in the global economy and discusses various topics that have a long term effect on business. The inclusion of conspiracy theories of an extraterrestrial presence and technologies on the formal agenda has significance well beyond the hypothetical nature of the discussion. Various national governments may well be tacitly letting the word out to their ‘friends in the business community’, that they had better start exploring how a future disclosure of an extraterrestrial presence and technologies will influence the business world. Given the discussion at Davos on January 21, 2004, of a possible extraterrestrial presence, and the forthcoming 50th anniversary of Eisenhower’s treaty on February 20-21, it might be speculated that a disclosure announcement may soon be made.
As we approach the 50th anniversary of a First Contact meeting between the US and an extraterrestrial race, we must do so with wonder at the awesome nature of this occasion. At the same time, we must do whatever necessary to make public the full details of the meeting, and the apparent spurning of what appears to be a principled extraterrestrial race that rejected technology transfers while dangerous weapons programs were in place in the US and elsewhere on the planet.  The subsequent signing of a treaty at a later date with an extraterrestrial race willing to trade technology in exchange for ‘limited medical experiments’ with civilians will surely go down in history as a deeply significant event whose effects continues to reverberate through human society. Finally, we must be alert to the mounting evidence that while a treaty was signed after the 1954 ‘First Contact’ event, it may well have been with the ‘wrong extraterrestrials’, and that this might adversely impact on humanity if not dealt with in an open, transparent and truthful manner. We live on the verge of a bold new future with many uncertainties over the secrecy surrounding the extraterrestrial presence, what best prepares us as this information enters into the public arena are our faith, democratic values, and dedication to truth.

 


ENDNOTES
[1] I sincerely thank H.M for his generous support of my research and providing the intellectually stimulating environment for many of the ideas in the paper to be developed. Grateful thanks also to George Arnold and two other librarians at American University’s Main Library who provided research assistance. I am also grateful to William Hamilton for permission to cite his personal notes of a 1991 interview with Sgt Charles L. Suggs. Finally thanks to Clay and Shawn Pickering for arranging interviews with individuals who had personal knowledge of meetings between the Eisenhower administration and extraterrestrials.
[2] William Moore, “UFO’s: Exploring the ET Phenomenon,” Gazette (Hollywood, CA., March 29, 1989). Available online at: http://www.presidentialufo.com/ike&the.htm
[3] William Moore, “UFO’s: Exploring the ET Phenomenon,” http://www.presidentialufo.com/ike&the.htm
[4]   John Spencer, “Light, Gerald,” The UFO Encyclopedia: Inexplicable Sightings, Alien Abductions, Close Encounters, Brilliant Hoaxes (Avon Books, 1991) 188.
[5] “A Covenant With Death by Bill Cooper,” http://www.alienshift.com/id40.html Also in William Cooper, Behold a Pale Horse (Light Technology Publishing 1991), 203.
[6] For biographical details on “Edwin G. Nourse, Ph.D. (1883-1974)”  go to: http://www.coopheroes.org/inductees/nourse.html
[7] For closure of Cardinal McIntyre’s records, see regulations governing access to the Los Angeles Catholic Archives http://www.archivalcenter.org/Archival_Regulations/arcreg.html
[8] Franklin Winthrop Allen was author of Instructions for Reporters for Hearings Before the Interstate Commerce Committee (Dispatch Press, 1918).
[9] See William Moore, “UFO’s: Exploring the ET Phenomenon,” http://www.presidentialufo.com/ike&the.htm
[10] Cooper, “Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12,” http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shadowlands/6583/maji007.html
[11] Personal notes from Bill Hamilton from a 1991 interview with Sgt Suggs.
[12] Personal notes from William Hamilton from a 1991 interview with Sgt Suggs. See also William Hamilton, Cosmic Top Secret (Inner Light, 1992).
[13] “John Lear Disclosure Briefing,” Coast to Coast Radio (November, 2003) http://www.coasttocoastam.com/shows/2003/11/02.html
[14] 21st Century Radio’s Hieronimus & Co. “Transcript of Interview with Bob Dean, March 24, 1996,”  http://www.planetarymysteries.com/hieronimus/bobdean.html . See also Larry Lowe, “Perspective on Robert O. Dean: Let’s Listen to the Man,” (CNI News, 1995) http://www.reptilianagenda.com/research/r110199j.html
[15] Milton William Cooper, “Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12,” http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shadowlands/6583/maji007.html . See also Cooper, Behold A Pale Horse, 202.
[16]   Milton William Cooper, “Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12,” http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shadowlands/6583/maji007.html
[17] Milton William Cooper, “Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12,” http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shadowlands/6583/maji007.html
[19] Milton William Cooper, “Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12,” http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shadowlands/6583/maji007.html, also in Cooper, Behold a Pale Horse, 203-04.
[20] Phil Schneider, “MUFON Conference Presentation, 1995,” available online at: http://www.anomalous-images.com/text/schneid.html
[21] See Chris Stoner, ‘The Revelations of Dr Michael Wolf on the UFO Cover Up and ET Reality,” (October 2000) http://www3.mistral.co.uk/futurepositive/mdrwolf.htm
[22] See Richard Boylan, “Official Within MJ-12 UFO-Secrecy Management Group Reveals Insider Secrets,”  http://www.drboylan.com/wolfdoc2.html
[23]   “Testimony of Don Phillips,” Disclosure, ed., Stephen Greer (Crossing Point, 2001) 379
[24]   Phillip Corso, The Day After Roswell (Pocket Books, 1997) 292.
[25] Milton William Cooper, “Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12,” http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shadowlands/6583/maji007.html, also in Cooper, Behold a Pale Horse, 209.
[26] “John Lear Disclosure Briefing,” Coast to Coast Radio (November, 2003) http://www.coasttocoastam.com/shows/2003/11/02.html
[27] Phil Schneider, MUFON Conference Presentation, 1995, available online at: http://www.anomalous-images.com/text/schneid.html
[28] “UFO Quotes by Astronauts and Cosmonauts,” http://ufos.my100megs.com/ufoquotes.htm
[29] “’Good’ versus ‘Bad Alien’, http://www.presidentialufo.com/good_bad_alien.htm
[30] See Chris Stoner, ‘The Revelations of Dr Michael Wolf on the UFO Cover Up and ET Reality,” (October 2000) http://www3.mistral.co.uk/futurepositive/mdrwolf.htm
[31] 21st Century Radio’s Hieronimus & Co. “Transcript of Interview with Bob Dean, March 24, 1996,”  http://www.planetarymysteries.com/hieronimus/bobdean.html
[32] For description of Wolf’s association with the Greys, see Chris Stoner, ‘The Revelations of Dr Michael Wolf on the UFO Cover Up and ET Reality,” (October 2000) http://www3.mistral.co.uk/futurepositive/mdrwolf.htm
[33] Majestic 12 Group, “Special Operations Manual, SOM1-01 – Extraterrestrial Entities and Technology, Recovery and Disposal,” April 1954   Part 2 http://209.132.68.98/pdf/som101_part2.pdf
[34] 21st Century Radio’s Hieronimus & Co. “Transcript of Interview with Bob Dean, March 24, 1996,”  http://www.planetarymysteries.com/hieronimus/bobdean.html
[35] See 21st Century Radio’s Hieronimus & Co. “Transcript of Interview with Bob Dean, March 24, 1996,”  http://www.planetarymysteries.com/hieronimus/bobdean.html

[36] “Bob Lazar on the Billy Goodman Happening” December 20, 1989 http://www.swa-home.de/lazar3.htm

[37] Author interviews with anonymous whistleblowers.
[38] See Michael Salla, “Disinformation, Extraterrestrial Subversion & Psychological Reductionism – A Reply to Dr Richard Boylan,” www.exopolitics.org January 7, 2004. http://exopolitics.org/Exo-Comment-11.htm
[39] For discussion of US strategy in dealing with extraterrestrials, see Michael Salla, The Failure of Power Politics as a Strategic Response to the Extraterrestrial Presence – Developing Human Capacity as a Viable Global Defense Strategy, www.exopolitics.org (January 1, 2004). http://www.exopolitics.org/Study-Paper-7.htm
[40] A. CRAIG COPETAS, “Extraterrestrial edge helps the balance sheet,”
Bloomberg News (01/21/04). Available online at: http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/business/2365195

 

 

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Jacques Vallee On The Miracle At Fatima: It Was A UFO Encounter

 


 

 

Vallee: Fatima Event Was A UFO

 
Excerpted from _Cosmic Conflict_ 

More seriously, the description made at Fatima, Portugal, OF A
SILVERY DISK WHICH FLEW THROUGH THE SKY, WAS SEEN BY SEVENTY THOUSAND
WITNESSES AND WAS PHOTOGRAPHED AS IT MANEUVERED, deserves a place in
our resume of the 'flying saucer' legend..." 

In this same book, Vallee states: "The crowd that stood in a field
in Fatima, a small village in the district of Leiria, some sixty-two
miles north of Lisbon, on October 13, 1917, was waiting there for a
miracle, because three children had been assured such an event would
take place after a number of meetings with an 'entity' that came from
the sky in a globe of light. The witnesses were three shepherds:
Lucia, aged ten, and her cousins Francisco Mario and Jacinto Marto,
aged nine and seven. Today, Fatima is one of the most celebrated
places of pilgrimage in the entire world. 

"...According to the very words of the Reverend General Vicar of
Leiria, who was one of the witnesses, the lady came in an 'aeroplane
of light,' an 'immense globe, flying westwards, at moderate speed. It
irradiated a very bright light.' Some other witnesses saw a white
being coming out of the globe, which several minutes later took off,
disappearing in the direction of the sun. 

"The last episode was the miracle itself. It was seen by seventy
thousand persons, among whom were pious individuals and atheists,
clergymen and reporters from a socialist newspaper. As promised, it
happened on October 13 at noon. Among the crowd was Professor Almeida
Garrett, of Coimbra University, a scientist, who described the
phenomena in the following terms: 'It was raining hard, and the rain
trickled down everyone's clothes. Suddenly, the sun shone through the
dense cloud which covered it: everybody looked in its direction. IT
LOOKED LIKE A DISC, OF A VERY DEFINITE CONTOUR. It was not dazzling.
I don't think that it could be compared to a dull silver disk, as
someone said later in Fatima. No. It rather possessed a clear,
changing brightness, which one could compare to a pearl. It looked
like a polished wheel. This is not poetry. My eyes have seen it. This
clear-shaped disk suddenly began turning. It rotated with increasing
speed. Suddenly, the crowd began crying with anguish. The sun
(disk?), revolving all the time, began falling toward the earth,
reddish and bloody, threatening to crush everyone under its fiery
weight...'" 

"...Fatima was a modern event, yet it is already clouded with the
distortions of 'belief'. The Photographs of the object had
'disappeared.' The key prophecy has been suppressed. Lucia shut
herself away from the world. As the years passed, the object was
turned into a 'dancing sun,' the angel hair became 'rose petals,' and
the entire phenomena was removed from the field of science and
entrusted to the religionists... 

"There have been many modern miracles of the Fatima type, but they
rarely gain much attention outside of religious circles. The flying
saucers get much more publicity than the miracles. 

"Between the years 1937 and 1945, an entity who identified herself
as the Queen of the Universe appeared more than 100 times to four
young girls in the tiny hamlet of Heede, Germany. The girls, aged
twelve through fourteen, were Anna Schulte, Greta and Maria
Ganseforth, and Susan Bruns. These visions began in November, 1937
and continued throughout the war, with the Lady urging the world to
'pray, pray much, especially for the conversion of sinners.' Hitler
was probably none too happy about all of this, especially since he
openly considered himself to be Antichrist. 

"(There are all kinds of stories and rumors that Hitler was a trance
medium himself and was in contact with evil entities who advised him
and directed many of his genocidal policies.) 

"Lesser miracles have included weeping statues and pictures which
seem to fit into the poltergeist category. 

"...On Sunday, June 18, 1961, four young girls were playing marbles
outside of the little village of Garabandal, Spain, when they
suddenly saw an 'angel.' The girls, Mary Cruz Gonzales, eleven,
Conchita Gonzales, twelve, Jacinta Gonzales, twelve, and Mary Loly
Mazon, twelve (none of the Gonzales girls were directly related),
said that he appeared to be about nine years old, was dressed in a
long, seamless blue robe, had a small face with BLACK EYES, and 'fine
hands and short fingernails.' For some reason, he gave the impression
of being very strong. This figure was surrounded by a dazzling glow
and faded into thin air without saying a word... 

"Soon after these initial experiences, the girls began to go into
trances (termed a state of ecstasy by religionists) during which they
would see the Lady. Sometimes these trances would last for hours, and
the girls would remain fixed in an awkward kneeling position and
their heads thrown back and their eyes staring at the vision, totally
oblivious to the hundreds of people swarming around them. 

"The Lady was accompanied by two angels on this occasion. The
'angels' were dressed alike, 'as if they were twins.' The Lady had
long, thin hands, a long angular face 'with a fine nose.' and lips
which were 'a bit thin.' She seemed to be 'rather tall' (Note:
Elsewhere in his book Keel states that many of the "Men In Black" or
"People" in black reported in other incidents were beings of the
above description - Branton). Her hair was a deep nut brown, parted
in the center. This is, of course, an almost classic description of
the 'long finger' UFO entities described by many contactees. 

Even more startling, on the Lady's right the girls could see 'A
SQUARE OF RED FIRE FRAMING A TRIANGLE WITH AN EYE AND SOME WRITING.
THE LETTER WAS IN AN OLD ORIENTAL SCRIPT!'" 

(Note: this also seems to correspond with the ancient "Eye of Horus"
of Egypt, which according to Illuminists represented Sirius and was a
major emblem within the Babylonian Mystery Religion. There have been
alleged photographs of obelisks on the Moon of the exact shape and
description as those found in St. Peter's Square in Rome, in Egypt,
and originally in Babylon. These four-sided, pyramidal-capped
obelisks traditionally were the "alters" around which the ancient
worshippers of Baal practiced their occult arts and were a
combination of phallic and Sun symbols. Could such obelisks be a
connecting factor between the ancient Babylonian-Egyptian "Mystery"
society and exterran societies of a similar nature, such as perhaps
the one alleged to exist in the Sirius system? - Branton). 

"The angels in all these cases sound suspiciously like our
celebrated 'little men' . 

"...The many messages conveyed by the Lady have conformed precisely
to Catholic dogma, using phrases and references which are significant
to trained theologists but would be meaningless to children. The
message of October 18, 1961, as dictated by the children, read: 'We
must make many sacrifices, do much penance. We must visit the Blessed
Sacrament frequently... unless we do this, a punishment will befall
us.' 

"...On Friday, June 18, 1965, Conchita entered a trance and was
purportedly given the following statements by the Lady: 

"'As my message of the eighteenth of October has not been complied
with, and as it has not been made known to the world, I am telling
you that this is the last one. Previously, the cup was filling; now
it is brimming over... You are now given the last warnings.' (Take
note of the remarkable different between the humble, patient and
longsuffering Christ of the New Testament, and this boasting,
impatient and wrathful "Whore" of Babylon that has appeared to so
many children the world over. This is certainly not like the "Mary"
of the New Testament and, in fact, it is not! - Branton). 

"There is a wealth of evidence and testimony which leaves little
doubt that these children of Garabandal were being possessed by some
outside influence and were undergoing a supernormal experience... 

"THE NATION OF THE THIRD EYE - There is no reason to think that the
four children of Garabandal," Keel continues, "had ever seen, or even
knew about, the eye symbol on the Great Seal of the United States
(ie. the seal of the Illuminati -Branton). Nor is it remotely
possible that the children, or any of the elders of Garabandal, could
have known of the importance that this symbol plays in the silent
contactee situation. In fact, very few ufologists are aware of it. 

"THOSE MYSTERIOUS 'MEN IN BLACK' WHO TRAVEL AROUND THE WORLD IN
UNLICENSED CADILLACS HAVE REPORTEDLY BEEN SEEN WEARING LAPEL PINS
BEARING THE SYMBOL. THEY HAVE ALSO IDENTIFIED THEMSELVES DIRECTLY AS
BEING FROM 'THE NATION OF THE THIRD EYE.' SO WE CALL THE SYMBOL THE
THIRD EYE. 

It would be interesting to find out why some cultures regarded it as
evil, while others used it to symbolize Deity. 

"Why did the Third Eye appear beside the vision of Garabandal? Was
it a symbol of identification? Or was it a warning? 

"...Eight young girls on the island of Cabra in the Philippines
began to suffer visions in the early part of the year (March, 1968),
and the feminine voice of 'the Virgin' promised a miracle. During the
last week of March about 3,000 persons poured onto the island and
waited. Some, including a university professor, a prominent
obstetrician, and an army major, reported seeing A CIRCULAR OBJECT
over the island. It whirled and changed through all the colors of the
spectrum, they said.

"Among the many correlations, you will note that the month of March
and April have often played an important part in these events, just
as March and April have always produced many of our principal UFO
sightings. These religious manifestations are clearly a variation on
the UFO manifestations (or vice versa). The same methods of
communication are being employed in both phenomena, and the UFO
entities bear a marked resemblance to the religious entities..." 

William Cooper continues with his report by stating: 

"...A symposium was held in 1957 which was attended by some of the
great scientific minds then living. They reached the conclusion that
by, or shortly after, the year 2000 the planet WOULD self-destruct
due to increased population and man's exploitation of the environment
WITHOUT ANY HELP FROM GOD OR THE ALIENS. 

"By secret Executive order of President Eisenhower, the JASON
Scholars were ordered to study this scenario and make recommendations
from their findings. The JASON Society CONFIRMED the findings of the
scientists and made three recommendations called ALTERNATIVES 1, 2,
AND 3. 

"Alternative 1 was to use nuclear devices to blast holes in the
stratosphere from which the heat and pollution could escape into
space. They would then change the human cultures from that of
exploitation into cultures of environmental protection. Of the three
this was decided to be the least likely to succeed due to the
inherent nature of man and the additional damage the nuclear
explosions would themselves create. 

THE EXISTENCE OF A HOLE IN THE OZONE LAYER MAY INDICATE THAT
ALTERNATIVE 1 MIGHT HAVE BEEN ATTEMPTED. THIS IS, HOWEVER, ONLY
CONJECTURE. 

"ALTERNATIVE 2 WAS TO BUILD A VAST NETWORK OF UNDERGROUND CITIES AND
TUNNELS IN WHICH A SELECT REPRESENTATION OF ALL CULTURES AND
OCCUPATIONS WOULD SURVIVE AND CARRY ON THE HUMAN RACE. THE REST OF
HUMANITY WOULD BE LEFT TO FEND FOR THEMSELVES 

ON THE SURFACE OF THE PLANET. We know that these facilities have
been built and are ready and waiting for the chosen few to be
notified. 

"Alternative 3 was to exploit the alien and conventional technology
in order for a select few to leave the earth and establish colonies
in outer space. I am not able to either confirm or deny the existence
of 'batch consignments' of human slaves, which would be used for the
manual labor as a part of the plan. The Moon, code-named ADAM, was
the object of primary intrest, followed by the planet Mars, code-
named EVE. I am now in possession of official NASA photographs of one
of the moon bases. I believe that the Mars colony is also a reality
(Note: There are some who suggest that "global warming" may not
actually be taking place as believed, and that this "scare" is based
largely on computerized models or simulations which have not always
coincided with actual temperature variations. Is it possible that the
earth is attempting to "heal" itself? Could it be that to some extent
"global warming" is more-or-less an "excuse" that is being used to
justify huge expenditures for subterran and exterran "bases" for
secret government use such as in the "Alternative" scenarios? This is
of course, even if true, no reason to destroy this planet, as
pollution of the air, water and earth IS something which could lead
to an eventual devastation of this Earth. - Branton). 

"As a delaying action, ALL THREE ALTERNATIVES included BIRTH
CONTROL, STERILIZATION, AND THE INTRODUCTION OF DEADLY MICROBES TO
CONTROL OR SLOW THE GROWTH OF EARTH'S POPULATION. AIDS is only ONE
result of these plans. It was decided BY THE ELITE that since the
population must be reduced and controlled, it would be in the best
intrest of the human race to rid ourselves of undesirable elements of
our society. Specific targeted populations included BLACKS,
HISPANICS, and HOMOSEXUALS."

Source: Rumor Mill News

 


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Zone of Silence

By

 ALEX MISTRETTA

 

“Beings descended from the sky in flying vessels…”

Mayan Chilam Balaam.

Much like its fabled ocean counterpart, the Zone of Silence encompasses three geographical areas forming a sort of triangle with the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila and Durango in Mexico.   A world away from the mythic waters of the Bermuda triangle; in fact the Zone is mostly desert.  Still, once upon a very long time ago these areas werent so different.  The zone was a thriving sea known as the Sea of Thetys.  Today as it did then, the Zone sits north of the Tropic of Cancer and south of the 30th parallel, latitude it shares with the Bermuda Triangle and the Pyramids of Egypt.

Geographic Zone of Silence mystery map
Geographic Zone of Silence mystery map

UFO activity abounds in the Zone, and both this place and the Bermuda Triangle share similar geomagnetic disturbances.  Compasses go haywire, and deep in the Zone, cars stall.  Planes avoid flying over this area.  Radio waves, short wave, microwaves and satellite signals will not penetrate certain areas; which is how  and why the Zone received its name.

In fact, all navigational instruments malfunction, resulting in the only town within the Zone, Ceballos, having no television.  Giant UFOs, strange humanoids, mutated cacti, deformed animal life, and strange stone structures, are all part of the lore associated with the Zone.

This area of Mexico lies close to the United States border that in 1970 resulted in a rather embarrassing situation for the United States.  July 2nd to be precise is when panic set in at White Sands Missile Base.  During a missile test, an Athena missile veered of course and headed straight for Mexico and crashed within the Zone, 400 miles away.  The missile was carrying two small containers of Cobalt 57, which is radioactive.  This fact added tension to a situation that White Sands was trying to keep quiet.  No explanation was ever found or given for the malfunction.

Falling celestial objects, man made and otherwise, are a common sight in the Zone, pointing perhaps to a geophysical anomaly beneath this area.  Scientists have estimated that meteorites strike the Zone every three minutes. The zone is also famous for its red and purple cacti and trees.  These unusual colored plants grow next to regular green or brown cacti.  If taken from the Zone, the cactus returns to a more normal green or brown.

Tortoises in the Zone display pyramid shape segments on their shells while tortoises in the rest of the world display hexagonal shapes.  These tortoises also have no tail.  Centipedes in the area are enormous at over a foot in length with purple heads and tails.  Albino, red eyed lizards and snakes are common, and insects grow to two to three times their normal size.  All strange, but these are not the real mystery of the Zone; but they are markers to something much more mysterious.

UFOs are a global phenomenon, with certain areas containing a higher concentration of sightings that others.  Very few places in the world compares to Mexico for the frequency of sightings.  What further differentiates the Zone of Silence from other areas are the presence of strange humanoids encountered in the middle of the desert, and the gigantic size attributed to local UFOs.

Perhaps, one of the most spectacular sightings on record occurred over Ceballos one evening in September 1976 (Uriarte, 2012).  Over a dozen locals stood outside on main street looking at a triangular objects that was estimated to be over 800 feet, flashing blue, white and green lights.

A year or so before this sighting, a married couple who were in the zone on a amateur rock and fossil collecting trip, found their vehicle stuck in the mud when a severe storm hit the area.   Ernesto and Josefina Diaz were stranded with the fear of a flash flood in the back of their minds.  Help was the last thing they expected in such a desolate place.

So it was with some surprise when two very tall individuals in yellow raincoats came out of nowhere and offered to help.  They told Ernesto and Josefina to get inside the car, and that they would help them get back on their way.  Which is exactly what they did; their car was suddenly out of the mud and on firmer ground.  Ernesto got out of the car to thank the two men, but they were gone.  There was no sign of them, no sign of any vehicle and no tracks (Corrales).

Other ranchers and locals within the Zone occasionally report of strangers that a very tall and blond.  Sometimes these strange individuals are seen on the side of the road deep in the desert with no vehicle in sight.  To further compound the mysterious aspect of the Zone; there are also ancient ruins in the desert.  Archeologists think that these are thousands of years old.  The architects are unknown, but like Stonehenge, these ruins are thought to have been built for astronomical purposes.

So, like pyramids in the Egyptian desert and in the jungles of central and South America, like Stonehenge in Wiltshire; ruins in the Zone of Silence are about the skies.  But, we were told this, perhaps even warned.  The Mayan Popol Vuh tell us that, Men came from the skies, knowing everything, and they examined the four corners of the sky and the Earths round surface.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USO’s: Unidentified Submersible Objects

 By

Alex Mistretta

 

A CONTINUAL PRESENCE

The Russians were known to possess a rather extensive fleet of submarines, and there were rumors that some were near the Pacific coast.  This made the U.S Navy very nervous in 1958.   With that in mind, 11 destroyers were sent out 50 miles off shore from San Francisco where Navy pilots had spotted a mysterious object in the water.   Nothing was found, but in this time of increased vigilance, mysterious underwater objects began to be tracked by the navies of the world.  The Americans were blaming the Soviets, and the Soviet, were blaming the Americans.  Other nations were blaming whoever had a different ideology; but the truth was that everybody knew that something else was responsible.

For two weeks in 1960, the Argentine Navy helped by the United States Navy track an underwater object in the Golfo Nuevo off the Patagonian coast.  Two objects were eventually tracked with the first staying submerged and out running the surface ships.  Explosives were dropped to no affect.  Quickly becoming an international incident, the rest of the world denied having anything to do with the incident.  Especially concerned were the Soviets, whom had tracked mysterious underwater objects in their waters as well.

Rumors once again of secret Nazi submarines and a surviving Nazi presence in South America to Antarctica began to surface.  Yes, many Nazis had escaped to South America and especially Argentina, but at the end of the World War II, the Nazis were broke.  Like everything else, it all comes down to economics.  Despite the amount of Nazi gold that made its way to undisclosed banks worldwide, it was unlikely that they were responsible for these objects that were so advanced, so fast, and capable of flying in and out of the water.  No, something else was and is, responsible.

ANTARCTICA

A few years later, well into that turbulent decade, yet another strange underwater object made an appearance in the southern hemisphere.  Not off the South American continent this time, but at a more dramatic location; Admiralty Bay, Antarctica.  Brazilian scientist, Dr Rubens J.Villela, was standing on the deck of an icebreaker when a large object described as a silvery bullet broke through the ice and disappeared into the sky.  The force was such that large blocks of ice were thrown up into the air.  The object apparently went through 37 feet of ice (Sanderson, 1970).

Taking into account the small percentage of individuals that frequent Antarctica, we wouldn’t expect a high concentration of UFO sightings emanating from this continent, but the sightings exist.  In 1965, Argentine and British sailors witnessed a UFO on Deception Island, and in 1971 the crew of an icebreaker reported a UFO once again in Admiralty Bay.  In 1983, meteorologists filed a UFO report from Prydy Bay, and 10 years later, Cape Hallett, became the location of a sighting.

Antarctica became quiet for a few years, but there appears to be a resurgence in sightings within the last decade.  For whatever reason, the southern hemisphere and more precisely South America, is known to be an intense UFO hot spot.   Whether there is a link between UFOs on the South American continent and the frozen waters of Antarctica remains to be seen.  But back on Antarctica, sighting reports suggest that UFOs are heading or coming from the area of Inaccessibility, which is the most remote area of Antarctica as measured by the distance from the Southern ocean.  There shouldn’t be anybody there.

There is a great deal of nonsense associated with mysteries in Antarctica as well, especially about entrance to inner worlds at the poles and secret Nazi expeditions to the area.  These stories do very little for increasing ufology’s credibility, but I must admit have always held my attention.  There’s always a signal in the noise, no matter how faint.  Finding a signal among disinformative noise, well that’s the key.

Following this line of thought, the story of Admiral Byrd that is so linked to UFOs and Antarctica, is problematic.  Yet, there are some aspects of the story that are intriguing.  Admiral Byrd was a well-known explorer in the early years of the 1900’s, when explorers were still heroes.  He had become famous for flying over both poles, and for his ground expeditions into Antarctica.  In 1929, with a grant from Ford and Rockefeller, Byrd took off towards Antarctica.  He set up camp and organized flights over the continent, and this is where it gets weird.

Author F.A Giannim wrote a book about Antarctica and Byrd’s exploits. In it, he mentions a newsreel shown in the United States that was shot from Byrd’s plane.  It was labeled “Land Beyond the Poles”, which showed mountains, rivers and wildlife.  Quite a few people have mentioned throughout the years that they remember the newsreel, which today cannot be located.   Curiously, Byrd’s log and diary are unobtainable and resides with the US Naval Intelligence.

THE TRIANGLE

Let’s get one thing straight, the number of disappearances over the Bermuda Triangle, isn’t particularly alarming; especially for ships.  On average, four planes and around 20 yachts disappear each year (Quazar, 2004).  Whether that constitutes an unusual amount or not is debatable.

Due to the Bermuda triangle’s reputation, more focus is put upon that part of the world than any other when it comes to ocean disappearances and accidents.  All the worlds oceans, seas, and in some instances lakes, have a great number of accidents, many unexplained.  Typhoons, freak waves, pirates, storms are a fact of life in the open water.  The Triangle, meaning from Florida to Bermuda to Puerto Rico lives partly upon its reputation.  The waters within the Triangle are often rough, and the weather can change most rapidly.  Even Charles Berlitz, in his classic book, took some liberties with some of the accounts; the weather in some of the classic disappearances was at times severe.  The later is a fact often neglected by researchers.

All that been said, there is still something very unusual in the Bermuda triangle, if not malignant.  But, it’s not the number of disappearances that is unusual or alarming, but it is the way they occur.  May 1999, an Aero Commander on its way to Nassau, disappeared from radar for thirty minutes, with the pilot seemingly unaware of anything peculiar.  Shortly after the plane reappeared on radar, it vanished once again, and this time for good.

In September of 1971, a military F-4 Phantom II fighter called Sting 27 vanished.  Immediately, another Phantom II fighter, Sting 29 was scrambled to the area where Sting 27 dropped off radar.  The pilot of Sting 29 reported a disturbance in the water and an oblong object over 100 feet in length.  No further details were given.  The official report mentioned a ‘”suspected point of impact”; that was all.

Planes have disappeared above land, between radarscopes (which is less than a minute), on approach, and in shallow water less than 10 feet deep.  Some of the most chilling data comes from conversations with pilots before vanishing.  Pilots mention a problem, that they are disorientated, cannot tell where the sky and the water meet, instrumentation malfunctions, along with the appearance of a strange fog.   Some pilots have also mentioned strange objects or aircraft in the air, which fail to appear on radar.  Pilots, fearful of a mid-air collision, would change course; but the objects always adjusted their course accordingly.  More alarming, they would position themselves in front of the planes, causing the less experienced pilots to panic.  Then, radio silence.

There appears to be no discernible pattern as to what type of plane or ship are more likely to experience an anomalous event over the Triangle.  From small Cessna’s to DC 3’s, DC 4’s, B-52 bombers and large tankers, have all vanished from the sea.  Boats have been found, derelicts, in perfect working conditions, but with the entire crew missing.

A remarkable, but not isolated account occurred in 1966 to a large 160-foot tug, captained by a very experienced Don Henry.  The tug and its crew where on their way to Florida, three days from Puerto Rico.  It was in the middle of the day, and the weather was good.  No reason to be concern, until the compass started spinning wildly and the radio went silent.  The crew ‘s uneasiness was compounded by the fact that suddenly there was no horizon.  Everything was grayish white.

Worried about the barge they were tugging, Captain Henry looked back to make sure it was still being tugged.  The line told Captain Henry that the barge was still there, but he couldn’t see it.  It was enveloped in a strange fog.  Captain Henry made the decision to speed up and try to escape whatever was enveloping his tug, but something was pulling it back.  A few minutes later, the resistance all but vanished, the fog disappeared, the horizon reappeared, and the tug was back on its way.  There was no damage.  The only remaining effect was that the barge was unusually warm to the touch.

Radar can also behave strangely out in the Triangle, showing large object or land- masses in the middle of the ocean.  Investigations by the Coast Guard never find anything, and the signal eventually fades away.

The number of UFO sightings over the water’s of the Triangle as well as USOs (unidentified submerged objects) below has been a constant since the time of Columbus.  The early sailors and explorers called the underwater disturbances “wheels of light”.  UFO’s have been seen from ships, from shore and from experienced pilots, with a specific concentration near and on Puerto Rico.  As a note of interest, an area off the coast of Japan called the Dragon’s Triangle has experienced similar phenomena to the Bermuda Triangle, UFOs and all.

LAKE TITICACA

If you want to spend half the night on the internet, Google Lake Titicaca, UFOs;, because it will take you at least that long to sort out all the web sites, photos and videos on the subject.  On many of them, there is questionable data from individuals that may or may not get out much.  Still, the point being that this area of the world gets an unusual amount of sightings as well.  Of primary interest here are the underwater lights that are reported underneath Lake Titicaca; and once again the display of strange flying objects entering and exited the lake by flight.  As is the case near Bermuda and in Puerto Rico, rumors and talk of underwater UFO bases run rampant on the Internet and at UFO conferences.  This of course, pure speculation as no one has ever found a UFO base.

What is not speculation are the objects that appear to show a particular interest in this area.  Perhaps it is because Lake Titicaca fills out two important criteria when it comes to the probability of a location becoming a UFO hot spot; deep waters and ancient sites.

Lake Titicaca, bordering Peru and Bolivia sits at an altitude of 12,507 ft and is the largest lake in South America.  More importantly in regard to this discussion, lake Titicaca also borders the ancient Inca sites of Tiahuanaco and Puma Punku.  It is also where the Inca’s deity Viracocha first made his appearance.  Viracocha, is the Inca version of Kukulkan or Quetzalcoatl, and was said to have brought civilization to the world.  The path walked by Viracocha is called the Sacred Valley and starts at Lake Titicaca, goes through Cuzco, Ollantaytambo,  and Macchu Pichu.  It ends in the Pacific Ocean where it is said Viracocha disappeared.  One of the legends associated with Viracocha is that upon his travels near the province of Cocha, locals threw stones at him.  Viracocha knelt and looked to the sky, and a great fire emerged from the sky and burned the landscape and stones.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cattle Mutilations

By

ALEX MISTRETTA

 

THE FIRST MODERN MUTILATION

It all started in 1967 with a mare named Snippy, (not her real name). Her real name was Lady, but the press had confused her with the owners of another horse and the name stuck.  Snippy was found one morning lying in her tracks, as if something had circled her before she died.  It was strange, in that all the meat from her head to her neck was gone, but there wasn’t a single trace of blood on the ground. A subtle smell hung in the air, not unlike that of embalming fluid.  It was muddy, yet there were no other prints or markings of any kind anywhere near Snippy.

Not far from the horse, a green paste was found.  Nellie Lewis, one of the owners, touched the paste with her fingers and felt a burn that continued for half an hour. The next day she felt ill.  Nellie and Berle Lewis, who lived on the ranch, had seen strange lights in the skies in the nights preceding Snippy’s demise, and from that point on, for better or worse, UFOs and cattle mutilations would be forever linked.

Interviewed in 1993, Berle Lewis shed more light on the mutilation. He mentioned that the bones were completely white, almost bleached with absolutely no meat left on them. The cut was perfectly smooth and he didn’t think that the smell was embalming fluid, but definitely medicine like.

The strangest part of the story was the missing brain, because there were no visible openings anywhere on the skull. This was a pattern that would reoccur mostly on cattle, throughout the following decades.  Investigated by both state police and the FBI, yet not a single suspect was ever brought forward.

MUTILATIONS AND BLACK HELICOPTERS

Horse mutilations are rare, cattle are usually the main victims, and by the mid-1970’s, the mutilation wave was in full force. In the early reports only UFOs were reported in areas associated with cattle mutilations.  In time, however, a new phenomenon would emerge; the black helicopters.

The San Luis valley, which straddles Northern Colorado and Southern New Mexico, was and is, the epicenter for this phenomenon.  The helicopters are always unmarked jet black or dark green, with tinted windows, and local authorities have been unable to ascertain their origin.  All that we truly know is that they often appear following a UFO sighting, or just before or after a mutilation.  In some cases they appear to be directly involved.

In the 1970’s, two loggers witnessed a black helicopter in the middle of the highway next to a dead bull or cow. Around the same time period, another eyewitness claimed to have seen a black helicopter with a cow attached and hanging underneath. Both of those reports together may suggest that these helicopters are transporting cattle for some reason, but does not necessarily link the two with the mutilations. Furthermore, the weight versus lift capability of these helicopters is obviously a point to consider.  Adult bulls can weight up to 3000 pounds.

With all that said, an interest by these helicopters and pilots with the mutilation phenomenon is undeniable.  One New Mexico rancher by the name of Eli Hronich lost 15 head of cattle in 18 months to the mutilators.  Hronich also had a Black Helicopter hover right above his head as he was inspecting one of his mutilated cows. Hronich also experienced burning that lasted for a week in his fingers after he inspected yet another animal, this time a steer.

Sheriff Ernest Sandoval was one of the principle investigators at that time in the San Luis Valley.  Sandoval felt confident that the helicopters were coming from across the Rio Grande, from a supposed deserted area.  He stated publicly on several occasion that the helicopters perpetrated some of the mutilations, and as a result he instructed his deputies to shoot at them if they could, which they did.  Admittedly, he has no explanations for some of the earlier mutilations, before the appearance of the helicopters, and no explanation for the strange lights that certainly aren’t helicopters.

UNEXPLAINED

A number of copycat mutilations have certainly occurred, fueling speculation that cults and devil worshippers were responsible, anything to stir the conversation away from UFOs.

In America, belief in the devil is always more comfortable and socially acceptable than the belief in anything UFO or alien related.  But in these copycat cases, blood is everywhere. Which I suppose is kind of the point.  Furthermore, footprints are always left behind and a knife had obviously been used, essentially a sloppy crime scene.

In bona fide mutes (as they are called in the business) there are no footprints, no tire marks, no blood in the immediate surroundings, and the animals often exsanguinated.

Exsanguinated does not mean that the animals are completely drained of blood. This is a misconception that is all too often propagated in the UFO community.  Exsanguinated means sufficient blood loss in order to cause the death of an organism.

In mutilation cases, the blood loss is considerable; and yes there are cases where the cattle are entirely devoid of blood. However, one has to keep in mind though that in dead carcasses the blood pools to the bottom of the animal, and subsequently can seep into the ground ergo, given the impression that the blood has mysteriously vanished.

What is harder to explain is the cooked hemoglobin found on the mutes?  Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells, and in this case would require a considerable source of heat to “cook” it.

Further analysis has indicated that incisions have been made with a high source of heat, such as a surgical laser. This source apparently is used to remove flesh, all reproductive organs, the rectum, ears, tongue and various internal organs.  Furthermore, some of the cuts appeared to have been made post mortem, which could also explain the lack of blood on site.

There are also instances of broken bones, and broken tree branches, indicating that the animals have been dropped from considerable height.  In some male specimens lying on their side, the bottom horn has been found embedded deeply into the ground.

This further fuels the debate between the pro-UFO camp and the pro- Black Helicopter camp, but engaging in that argument is missing the point.  The real revelation here is the indication that the mutilations are been conducted somewhere else.  This explains the lack of evidence at the location where the mutes are found, including the absence of any prints even in snow or in mud.

Logan County, Nebraska, lost over 60 head of cattle to mutilations in a year and half time period in the mid 1970’s.  Sheriff Harry Graves investigated the majority of these cases and was perplexed when he couldn’t find signs of predation.  None of the usual signs, such as bite marks and prints were present.  Graves also found three circular indentations in the ground next to one of the mutes.

The indentations were 2.4 inches deep and 5.9 inches in circumference.  This would not be the last time that these three circular indentations would be found next to a mutilation.  So far, no one has been able to determine the object responsible.  It has been speculated that these were the markings from a laser that was used in the field to cut open the animals.  This is somewhat unlikely, especially in the 1970’s, as small, portable lasers did not yet exist, and the ones in labs were enormous machines.  If lasers were indeed used by an earthly source on these animals, it would have been much easier to bring the animal to the source.

AN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY

In 2002 the sequencing of the genome of the cow begin. It included hundreds of scientists, from 24 countries, all under the direction of the Bovine Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, and the Bovine HapMap Consortium. Fifty million dollars and six years later, the entire cow genome was sequenced and some surprises were in store.

For one thing it was discovered that cattle have more in common with humans than the usual test subjects of rats and mice.  Cows share about 80% of their genes with humans, and cow proteins are more similar to human protein than rats and mice (Tellam, 2009). It was also discovered that cows have a superior ability to resist diseases. In other words, on studies pertaining to diseases and environmental factors that lead to diseases, cows make much better tests subjects that mice and rats which are what all universities and research projects use.

One interesting aspect related to the cattle mutilation, at least in the United States, is that a great number of mutilated cattle are from areas that were once home to nuclear tests.  This just might be a coincidence.  Obviously, they needed open land with a lot of room to conduct nuclear tests, and ranchers need land with a lot of room for their cattle.  So perhaps, that is where the relationship lies, but the correlation is intriguing.

Still, there appears to be in increase in UFO activity in the United States since the birth of the nuclear age, followed shortly by the cattle mutilation phenomenon.  There is no doubt humans are involved with the mutilations in some capacity, hence the presence of unmarked Black Helicopters near mutilations sites.  There is also no doubt that there is a UFO presence around cattle mutilations, and some of the mutilations themselves point to a superior technology.  Whichever the case, this is clearly in my opinion an environmental study, and a study on the effect on the human population. The question is, what happens when the study is completed?

ADDENDUM (by Dr. Barry E. Taff)

For a very interesting and provocative entertainment take on the cattle mutilation mystery, check out the movie; Endangered Species, (MGM. 1982) starring Robert Urich and Jo Beth Williams (of Poltergeist movie fame).